annotated bibliography- bireknau final

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Brittney Carmazzi Miss Schmidt Honors English 9 February 27, 2018 An Annotated Bibliography: Birkenau Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Camp, www.yadvashem.org/holocaust/about/final-solution/ auschwitz.html#narrative_info. 21 Feb. 2018 The commander of Auschwitz-Birkenau was a man named Rudolf Hoss. He was in charge of all the officers because Hitler could not be there every day. Hitler said that the reason for building Birkenau
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  Brittney Carmazzi Miss Schmidt Honors English 9 February 27, 2018 An Annotated Bibliography: Birkenau Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Camp, www.yadvashem.org/holocaust/about/final-solution/ auschwitz.html#narrative_info. 21 Feb. 2018 The commander of Auschwitz-Birkenau was a man named Rudolf Hoss. He was in charge of all the officers because Hitler could not be there every day. Hitler said that the reason for building Birkenau was because he needed more people to be killed. Before it was built, he wasn’t happy with how many Jews were still living. Birkenau is located in Poland and is the largest of the concentration camps established on Polish ground. It is served as a labor camp and as a center for killing of Jews. It had several  places for people to be murdered and burned. All of the people put in the gas chambers were killed by Zyklon B gas. Zyklon B is a very poisonous gas that mainly infects the lungs and causes people to suffocate. People who were weak or sick were sent straight to the gas chambers. Birkenau was established in October 1941. Until November 1944, the camp was used as a factory for mass murder, with people coming in from all over Europe. Most of those brought to the camp were Jews and almost all were sent to the gas chambers as soon as they got there. Only a small percentage was selected for labor in the camp. Some people were chosen for the medical experiments of Dr. Josef Mengele. He killed many people because of his harsh, crazy experiments, although, he did have the right to kill them. If his experiments failed, he would simply leave the prisoners to suffer until their death.  Carmazzi 2 Berenbaum, Michael. “Auschwitz.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1 Feb. 2018, www.britannica.com/place/Auschwitz. Birkenau is said to be the largest concentration and extermination camp in the whole world. It was also considered to be three camps in one. It was a prison, extermination, and concentration camp. That is why it killed such a massive number of people. Ninety  percent of those people were Jews. The reason why it was a place where many people were killed was because of the location. It was located at a railway junction with forty- four tracks. Because of that, more trains could come meaning that more people could be transported there. Birkenau was huge in size. It included 300 barracks, which could hold around 175  people each. It had four gas chambers, many storage places for dead bodies, and also many cremating ovens. There were forty-five sub-camps of Birkenau which made it even  bigger. As time went on, prisoners were getting more tired and useless to the Nazis. Since they were useless, they had to be killed. A process called selection occurred to get rid of the people that were considered to be useless. The ones who were young and able to keep working were sent back to work, but many were in the opposite category. The  prisoners who looked tired and unhealthy were simply sent to be killed. Many of those were women and children. History.com Staff. “Auschwitz.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/auschwitz. Auschwitz II, located in the village of Birkenau, was constructed in 1941 on the order of Heinrich Himmler, who operated all Nazi concentration camps. Birkenau is the biggest of all the parts Auschwitz. In fact, it could hold over 90,000 prisoners. The majority of victims died at Birkenau. Birkenau had more than 40 smaller sub-camps that served as slave-labor camps.  Carmazzi 3  There was a small amount of lucky people that didn’t have to die in the gas chambers. Those people died from overwork, disease, starvation, or the harsh living conditions. Many forms of torture happened daily, often in front of the other prisoners. People were shot, hung, and beaten down to death in front of all the people. The prisoners couldn’t stop it and if they tried, they also would be killed. Prisoners also died from being starved or suffocated in a prison cell. The officers liked watching long, painful deaths. Some prisoners were chosen to go through intense medical experiments. These were the tests of Dr. Josef Mengele’s research. Dr. Mengele was a German physician who began working at Auschwitz in 1943. He soon became known as the “Angel of Death” because he would kill so many innocent people who didn’t get a chance to survive. One of the experiments he did involved eye color. What Dr. Mengele did inject a serum into the eyes of many children, causing them much pain. He also injected chloroform into the hearts of twins, to determine if both siblings would die at the same time and in the same way.  Nux s.r.o. “The Gypsy Camp at Auschwitz II - Birkenau.” Úvod, www.holocaust.cz/en/history/concentration-camps-and-ghettos/the-gypsy-camp-at- auschwitz-ii—birkenau/. Birkenau was taken down by the Red Army around 3 p.m. on January 27,1945. Thousands of injured people were taken from Birkenau to the main camp. Some orphaned children were immediately adopted by Polish families. All the others were  placed in an orphanage. The hospital at the main camp cared for more than 4,500 people and most of them were Jews. There was a wide range of sicknesses from an awful fever to parts of the body  being completely disabled. At least 500 patients died. Assistance was provided by volunteers who donated money and food, cleaned hospital rooms, delivered water, washed patients, cooked meals, and buried the dead.  Carmazzi 4  The prisoners' day started at 4:30 am with morning roll call. They would wake up and make themselves look presentable until it was time for them to go. The prisoners were ordered to line up outdoors in rows of five and had to stay there until roll call was over and all the SS officers had arrived. The inmates were counted and counted again. The guards would force the prisoners to do painful things if the guards didn’t like them for some reason. For example, some might have had to squat for an hour with their hands above their heads. Sometimes people got worse punishments such as beatings or detention for things such as only having one shoe, having a missing button, or an improperly cleaned food bowl. Wiesel, Elie, and Marion Wiesel. Night. Hill and Wang, a Division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2017. Elie Wiesel and his father go through their first selection at Birkenau. During selection, the people that looked to be weaker or less useful are chosen to be killed. Elie Wiesel land his father remain together, but they were separated from his mother and younger sister. He would never see them again. Birkenau was the place that separated the Wiesel family, and Elie would never forget that. At Birkenau, Elie and his father meet a prisoner who told them to lie about their ages and job. They were told to do this so they could be taken away from the largest death camp in the world. The prisoner also explains to them that they were brought there to be killed. Dr. Mengele is a key person in determining who stays and who gets killed. Elie Wiesel and his father took the advice and lied about their age and job. That saved their lives. It not only kept them alive but it kept them together. As prisoners move through Birkenau, they were horrified to see a huge pit where babies were being burned, and another pit for adults. It was an awful sight to see. At first, the pit was thought to be snow, but when they realized it was human flesh they didn’t know what to think.
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