Microgrid Report

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  ASEMINAR REPORTONMICROGRID SUBMITTED BYAkshata. A. SHarshada. V. HMadhuri. SMandasmita. R. K  Department of Electrical & Electronics EngineeringS. G. BALEKUNDRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYSHIVABASAVNAGAR,BELGAUM-590010S. G. BALEKUNDRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYSHIVABASAVNAGAR,BELGAUM-590010  Department of Electrical & Electronics EngineeringSEMINAR REPORTONMICROGRID Is result of the bonafide work carried out byAkshata. A. SEE001Harshada. V. HEE010Madhuri. SEE015Mandasmita. KEE018Submitted in partial fulfilment of requirement for VII semester examination of Degree in Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical &Electronics Engineering for the year 2012-13SEMINAR COORDINATORH.O.D Contents Introduction to Microgrid.  Microgrid Operating Modes.  The Need of Microgrid.  Interconnected Microgrids – Power Parks.  Environmental Aspects.  Conventional Grid versus Microgrid.  Advantages & Disadvantages of Microgrid.   Future Directions on Microgrid Research.  References. INTRODUCTION Up till now small generation units have been dispersed throughout power systems basically asuninterruptible power supplies. Generally these sources are not synchronized with the grid power supplythough, but rather cut in when the primary supply is interrupted.With the role of distributed generation changing from backup to primary energy supply, more flexibleconnection strategies are required. To realize the emerging potential of distributed generation a systemapproach is to be taken which views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a ―microgrid. ‖  The concept of Micro Grid has grown out of this desire for truly interconnected operation of distributedgeneration. It is envisioned that this microgrid concept will prove to be an ideal solution to ruralelectrification besides its very well use in industrial parks, commercial and institutional campuses andmany other situations requiring improved reliability and power quality. A micro grid enables smallcommunities to take control of their energy use and reduce their carbon footprint through a new andinnovative way of generating and managing electricity. THE MICRO-GRID CONCEPT  A microgrid can be simply defined as an aggregation of electrical generation, storages and loads. Thegenerators in the microgrid may be microturbines, fuel cells, reciprocating engines, or any of a number of alternate power sources. A microgrid may take the form of shopping center, industrial park or collegecampus. To the utility, a microgrid is an electrical load that can be controlled in magnitude. The loadcould be constant, or the load could increase at night when electricity is cheaper, or the load could beheld at zero during times of system stressA microgrid combined with power electronic interface is a completely self-sufficient network, with preferably autonomous control, communication and protection. It is capable of providing capacitysupport to the transmission grid while in grid-connected mode, and with capacity in excess of coincident peak demand. So, the Micro grids comprise low voltage LV distribution systems with integration of Diverse Energy Resources DER such as photovoltaic, wind, bio-mass, bio fuel and fuel cell together with Distributed storage DS like flywheels, energy capacitors and batteries and Controllable Loads that behave as a coordinated entity networked by employing advanced power electronic conversion andcontrol capabilities The MicroGrid assumes three critical functions that are unique to this architecture: 1.Microsource Controller  ã regulate power flow on a feeder as loads on that feeder change their operating points ã regulate the voltage at the interface of each microsource as loads on the system change ã Insure that each microsource rapidly picks up its share of the load when the system islands. ã It responds in milliseconds and uses locally measured voltages and currents to control themicrosource during all system or grid events. 2. Energy Manager The Energy Manager provides for system operation of the MicroGrid through dispatch of power And voltage set points to each Microsource Controller. ã Insure that the necessary heat and electrical loads are met by the microsources ã   Insure that the MicroGrid satisfies operational contracts with the bulk power provider  ã   Minimize emissions and/or system losses ã   Maximize the operational efficiency of the microsources3.ProtectionThe protection coordinator must respond to both system and MicroGrid faults. For a fault on the grid, thedesired response may be to isolate the critical load portion of the MicroGrid from the grid as rapidly as isnecessary to protect these loads.
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