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   www.cafetinnova.org  Indexed in Scopus Compendex and Geobase Elsevier, Geo-Ref Information Services-USA, List B of Scientific  Journals, Poland, Directory of Research Journals ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 09, No. 03 June 2016, P.P.149-153   #SPL02090323 Copyright ©2016 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved. Properties of Bitumen Containing Powdered Gondorukem Rubber Additives   E LSA E KA P UTRI AND P UJA P ERDANA   Civil Engineering Department, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia Email:   elsaeka@gmail.com; elsaeka@ft.unand.ac.id Abstract: The objective of the research is to determine the stiffness of bitumen with Gondorukem additives that form a new binder for pavement construction. The binders were subjected to conventional tests including penetration, softening point to determine the penetration Index. The stiffness of binder is determined by means of Van der Poel Nomograph. A new modified binder with Gondorukem additives improved the conventional properties of the base bitumen such as; penetration, softening point, temperature susceptibility. Moreover, all the four percentages of G/B (3%, 5%, 7% and 10%) might be applicable for road construction and the optimum percentage of modified binder Gondorukem in Bitumen (G/B) is achieved at 7% G/B. Keywords: Gondorukem, Penetration, Softening Point, Penetration Index, Viscosity, Stiffness 1. Introduction Currently, the research of adding additives to improve the material performance is widely investigated. The additives may be added to cement, for concrete material. While to produce the stiffer, to improve the  performance and durability of the pavement any additives are typically added to the bitumen. For very heavily trafficked pavements, the use of stiffer binders offers significant savings as a result of the reduced thickness possible due to the increasing stiffness. In this investigation the additives is chosen from local material. Gondorukem (Colophony) is solid distillates sappine trees (Pinus sp.). It is derived from the resin of the longleaf pine (  Pinus palustris ). In Indonesia,  pine forest extensively planted around 5,521,985 ha, and some of them are in West Sumatra [1]. Gondorukem is exported to Asian countries (such as India, Singapore, Taiwan) about 56%, United States for 3%, Europe (France, Netherlands, Italy, UK) approximately 40%[2]. Gondorukem has been widely used for the paper industry, soap, varnish, batik, shoe polish, insulating electrical appliance and printing inks [3]. Gondorukem is also used as an adhesive material that serves as tackifiers, hyper adhesion (adhesion  promoter) or booster thickness (viscosity promoters). It is weathering resist and the shape is changeable when reaching its melting point. Thus, in this research the addition of Gondorukem in Bitumen is expected to improve the stiffness of the  pavement to support heavy traffic loading. As can be seen in Figure 1, Gondorukem is yellowish in colour. All types of Gondorukem have the same  basic chemistry. It consists of diterpenic monocarboxylic acids, 85%  –   95% and neutral fraction of 5% to 15% “neutrals” (> 50 components identified). It is unlikely that any of these constituents are present at concentration > 10 %. Figure 1:  Gondorukem as a powdered and bulk The study focuses on the determination of the softening point, penetration and penetration index of  bitumen adding Gondorukem in order to ascertain their grades. Then, the stiffness of a new bonding  bitumen that more rigid and might improve the elastic  performance was determined using a nomograph Van Der Poel (Figure.2)[4]. The Nomograph enables the average behaviour of a given grade to be calculated with accuracy sufficient for engineering purposes [4] [5]. 2. Material and Experimental 2.1. Materials The 80-100 penetration bitumen was used in this study and its physical properties are listed in Table 1. The Gondorukem (Figure.1) obtained by filtering the residue from the distillation process pine sap.   E LSA E KA P UTRI AND P UJA P ERDANA  International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 09, No. 03, June, 2016, pp. 149-153 150   Figure 2; Van der Poel Nomograph used to determine Bitumen Stiffness [5] and [7]   Table 1:  Bitumen Properties Performance Indexes Test Results Penetration(25 o C, 100 g, 5 s) (0.1 mm) 80 mm Penetration After Loss On Heating 75 mm Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup) 223 o C Burning Point 298  o C Loss On Heating (163  o C, 5 hours) 0,1963 % Ductility (25  o C ) >1000 Mm Unit Weight (25  o C) 1,0315 gr/cm 3 Softening Point (Ring and Ball Test) 48  o C 2.2. Sample Preparation Gondorukem is mixed with bitumen conventionally where the bitumen is heated to a temperature of 90°C as well as Gondorukem which has been refined through sieve no. 200 (<0.075 mm), and stir for 5 minutes until completely mixed. The mixed temperature of 90°C is hot enough to make a solid mixture, and does not exceed the weight loss tests temperature of 163 o C (ASTM D 2872 - EN 12607), so the content of the asphalt does not change due to heating. The sample were prepared at five different  percentages of Gondorukem in bitumen i.e. 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% for Softening Point and Penetration tests respectively. There are three samples at each  percentage. The results are presented in average value. 3. Tests Performed 3.1. Conventional Tests Penetration test at 25 o C and softening point test were conducted to characterize the conventional physical  properties of bitumen according to ASTM D5, ASTM D36, respectively. Penetration value and Softening Point were utilized in order to estimate the stiffness  property of Gondorukem modified bitumen based on Van der Poel Nomograph (Figure.2). The addition of additives in bitumen might improve its stiffness. However, too high stiffness might create  brittle and cracked bitumen. The ductility test according to ASTM D113 was utilized to assess the ductile properties of binder. All tests performed in the Civil Engineering Department Laboratory in the University of Andalas. Penetration test is to determine the consistency of  bituminous material as well as to assess the suitability of bitumen for use under different climatic conditions and various types of construction. The stiffness of the material is strongly related to the penetration of the  bitumen. 3.2. Penetration Index Determination The penetration index, used to define the binder type, is based on two empirical indirect measures of viscosity: the ring and ball and the  penetration tests. The penetration index represents a quantitative measure of the temperature susceptibility response of bitumen. Knowing the  penetration index of particular bitumen, it is  possible to predict its behaviour in an application [6] [7]. One of the best known to predict the behaviour of  bitumen is that developed by Pfeiffer and Van Doormaal in 1936 [8]. First is to determine the temperature susceptibility and the second is the Penetration Index. The value of A varies from 0.015 to 0.06 showing that there may be considerable difference in temperature response [9]. Pfeiffer and Van Doormaal developed an equation for the temperature response that assumes a value of about zero for road bitumen. For this reason they defined the  penetration index (PI) as:  Properties of Bitumen Containing Powdered Gondorukem Rubber Additives International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 09, No. 03, June, 2016, pp. 149-153 151   (1)  The value of PI ranges from around -3 for high temperature susceptible bitumen to around +7 for highly blown low temperature susceptible (high PI)  bitumen [7] [10]. The PI is an unequivocal function of A and hence it may be used for the same purpose. The values of A and PI can be derived from penetration measurements at two temperatures,T 1  and T 2  using the equation: (2) And, assuming a penetration test temperature of 25°C gives: (3) Equations (2) and (3) were applied in this study to calculate first for A (temperature susceptibility of  bitumen) and PI (penetration index). These were calculated from the measured softening point temperatures and penetrations value [6] [7] and [8]. C. The Viscosity of Bitumen Two tests for bitumen that can indirectly measure the viscosity are the penetration test and the softening  point test [11]. The viscosity of various G/B binder is calculated from penetration value using Eq. (4) for  penetrations less than or equal to 54 and Eq.(5) for  penetrations greater than 54, based on TxDOT Designation: Tex-535-C.  µ  = (4)  µ = (5) Where:  μ = viscosity in poise  P = penetration in penetration units. The viscosity of a fluid slows down its ability to flow, and particular significance at high temperatures when the ability of the bitumen to be sprayed onto or mixed with aggregate material is of great significance. The  penetration test is in no way indicative of the quality of the bitumen but it does allow the material to be classified. D. Stiffness of Bitumen In the current study, a Nomograph developed by Van der Poel was used to predict the stiffness property of modified binder G/B based on penetration value and softening point of the various G/B percentages. A Nomograph is used to predict the stiffness of  bitumen. It requires three parameters [9];    a penetration index value that obtained from  penetration value and softening point of the  bitumen,    a shape parameter that indicates the time dependency of the asphalt, and    a temperature dependency parameter that indicates the temperature dependency of the  bitumen. The stiffness of bitumen is time dependent  —  they flow with time--and consequently asphalt binders are classified as rheological materials [8]. 4. Results and Discussion 4.1. Softening Point (SP) and Penetration The Penetration and Softening Point (SP) results for the bitumen samples are presented in Figure 2 and 3 respectively. Figure 2:  Penetration value of Gondorukem/Bitumen Figure 2 shows the average value of penetration at each percentage of G/B. The Penetration value of 0% Gondorukem in Bitumen is 80 mm, while the  penetration value for 3% to 10% G/B results ranged from 70 to 60 mm. This is the typical grades of  bitumen penetration that may be used for warm climates. As the percentage of G/B increases the penetration value is decreases. The lower the penetration the harder the sample, therefore bitumen with high  penetration value (called soft ) are used for cold climates while bitumen with low penetration value (called hard ) are used for warm climates. Moreover, high penetration grade is better used in spray application works [6]. The softening point test results are shown in Figure 3. Bitumen should never reach its softening point while under traffic loading, T. Figure 3:  Softening Point of various Gondorukem in  Bitumen  E LSA E KA P UTRI AND P UJA P ERDANA  International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 09, No. 03, June, 2016, pp. 149-153 152  The softening point for 0% G/B is low that is 48 o C, while for G/B ranged from 3% to 10% lied on ranged from 58 to 62°C where the highest softening point value is at 7% Gondorukem in Bitumen. Gondorukem added to bitumen increases its softening  point thus improves the bitumen durability. As shown in Figure 3, the 7% Gondorukem addition is the highest softening point thus, it is more resist to higher temperature under traffic loading due to the higher the softening point temperature. 4.2. Penetration Index (PI) Figure 4 shows the penetration index of various  percentages G/B. It ranges from -0.5 to 1.8 for 0% G/B to 10% G/B. The maximum PI achieved at 7% G/B of 2.5. According to Shell Bitumen Handbook in 2003, it stated that the value of PI ranges from around -3 for highly temperature susceptible bitumens to around +7 for highly blown low-temperature susceptible (high PI) bitumens [7]. Figure 4:  Penetration Index of various Gondorukem in Bitumen Thus, for all the percentages of G/B in this research meet the requirement, where the binder is not categorized of temperature susceptible and also not too hard that may create binder brittle and easily crack. Penetration grading’s basic assumption is that the less viscous the asphalt, the deeper the needle will  penetrate. The viscosity of various G/B calculated from penetration test at 25 o C are presented in Table 2. The calculation procedure is based on The ASTM Penetration Method Measures Viscosity (Tex-535-C). The calculated viscosity is the viscosity of the sample at that temperature [11]. Table 2:  Viscosity of Gondorukem/Bitumen Gondorukem/ Bitumen (%) Penetration (mm) Viscosity (poise) 0% 78 1.20 x 10 6 3% 68.2 1.45 x 10 6  5% 71.4 1.33 x 10 7% 73.33 1.27 x 10 6  10% 66.66 1.56 x 10 6  As can be seen in Table 2, the results showed the viscosity of the binder increasing with an increase in the additive. It is expected to improve the viscosity  properties of the modified binder and enhance its resistance to deformation when used in pavement mixtures. The ductility values for all percentages of G/B meet its minimum requirement that is more than 100 cm, as specified by the ASTM D113.   The ductility of a bituminous material is measured by the distance to which it will elongate before breaking when two ends of a briquet specimen of the material, are pulled apart at a specified speed and at a specified temperature. It is known that as penetration and ductility decrease the viscosity of asphalt increases. As viscosity of asphalt increases, stiffness at for all G/B percentages combination of temperature and loading time also increase. Table 3 shows the stiffness of various percentages of G/B with 0.0151 sec time of loading, T w (which equates to a vehicle speed around 60 km/h) for 20 o C, 40  o C, and 60 o C of pavement temperature, T. For the same pavement temperature, the stiffness is increases with the increasing of G/B up to 7% of G/B. As the percentage of G/B is increasing until 10%, the stiffness is decreases with the increasing of G/B. Table 3 Stiffness of G/B with time of loading of 0.00151 sec Temperature  Stiffness of G/B  (MPa) ( o C) 3% 5% 7% 10% 20 6 5 4 5 40 0.55 0.6 0.56 0.5 60 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 Table 4 shows the stiffness of various percentages of G/B at maximum pavement temperature for various time of loading. The trend is similar as presented in Table 3, as the G/B increases the stiffness is also increases until 7% G/B. Then it decreases for 10% G/B. Table 4 Stiffness of G/B with time of loading variation at 60 o C Time of Loading  Stiffness of G/B  (MPa) Sec 3% 5% 7% 10% 0.0151 0.06 0.079 0.079 0.06 1 0.003 0.0049 0.0049 0.004 60 0.000051 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 3600 1.9 x 10 7 2 x 10 7  2 x 10 7  2 x 10 7  For the same time of loading, the stiffness is increases with the increasing of G/B up to 7% of G/B. As the  percentage of G/B is increasing until 10%, the stiffness is decreases with the increasing of G/B. It can be concluded from Table 3 and 4, the objective of addition the Gondorukem in Bitumen is to create a new binder that generate the higher stiffness modulus. At the higher temperature or longer loading times (stationary traffic) the stiffness modulus is
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