RND Miling, Lathe

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RESEARCH ON MILLING AND GRINDING MACHINE AND LATHE LATHE Working Principal for Lathe Understanding the principal of Lathe is very important since we must really have the knowledge about the Lathe components, the operations and also the theory before we know how we can calibrate Lathe. Lathe Machine Working Principle: The lathe is a machine tool which holds the workpiece between two rigid and strong supports called centers or in a chuck or face plate which revolves. The cutting tool is rigidly he
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  RESEARCH ON MILLING AND GRINDING MACHINE AND LATHELATHE Working Principal for Lathe Understanding the principal of Lathe is very important since we must really havethe knowledge about the Lathe components, the operations and also the theorybefore we know how we can calibrate Lathe.Lathe MachineWorking Principle: The lathe is a machine tool which holds the workpiecebetween two rigid and strong supports called centers or in a chuck or face platewhich revolves. The cutting tool is rigidly held and supported in a tool post whichis fed against the revolving work. The normal cutting operations are performedwith the cutting tool fed either parallel or at right angles to the axis of the work.The cutting tool may also be fed at an angle relative to the axis of work formachining tapers and angles.Types of Lathes    Speed Lathe    Engine or centre    Tool room lathe    Capstan and turret lathe    Automatic Lathe    Special purpose lathe    Wood Working Lathe    CNC (Computer Numerical Control)      Construction: The main parts of the lathe are the bed, headstock, quick changinggear box, carriage and tailstock.1. Bed: The bed is a heavy, rugged casting in which are mounted the workingparts of the lathe. It carries the headstock and tail stock for supporting theworkpiece and provides a base for the movement of carriage assembly whichcarries the tool.  2. Legs: The legs carry the entire load of machine and are firmly secured to floorby foundation bolts.3. Headstock: The headstock is clamped on the left hand side of the bed and itserves as housing for the driving pulleys, back gears, headstock spindle, livecentre and the feed reverse gear. The headstock spindle is a hollow cylindricalshaft that provides a drive from the motor to work holding devices.4. Gear Box: The quick-change gear-box is placed below the headstock andcontains a number of different sized gears.5. Carriage: The carriage is located between the headstock and tailstock andserves the purpose of supporting, guiding and feeding the tool against the jobduring operation. The main parts of carriage are:a). The saddle is an H-shaped casting mounted on the top of lathe ways. Itprovides support to cross-slide, compound rest and tool post.b). The cross slide is mounted on the top of saddle, and it provides a mounted orautomatic cross movement for the cutting tool.c). The compound rest is fitted on the top of cross slide and is used to support thetool post and the cutting tool.d). The tool post is mounted on the compound rest, and it rigidly clamps thecutting tool or tool holder at the proper height relative to the work centre line.e). The apron is fastened to the saddle and it houses the gears, clutches andlevers required to move the carriage or cross slide. The engagement of split nutlever and the automatic feed lever at the same time is prevented she carriagealong the lathe bed.6. Tailstock: The tailstock is a movable casting located opposite the headstock onthe ways of the bed. The tailstock can slide along the bed to accommodatedifferent lengths of workpiece between the centers. A tailstock clamp is providedto lock the tailstock at any desired position. The tailstock spindle has an internaltaper to hold the dead centre and the tapered shank tools such as reamers anddrills.LATHE OPERATIONS
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