Science Philanthropist, Jeffrey Epstein, Convenes a Conference of Nobel Laureates to Define Gravity

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Twenty one of the world’s top physicists, including three Nobel Laureates, opened a symposium on St. Thomas in the US Virgin Islands to debate the essence of gravity and a unified gravity theory.
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  Science Philanthropist, Jeffrey Epstein, Convenes a Conference of NobelLaureates to Define Gravity Twenty one of the world’s top physicists, including three Nobel Laureates, opened a symposium onSt. Thomas in the US Virgin Islands to debate the essence of gravity and a unified gravity theory. New York, NY, March 29, 2012 --( Twenty one of the world's top physicists, including threeNobel Laureates, opened a symposium on St. Thomas in the US Virgin Islands to debate the essence of gravity and a unified gravity theory. The private meetings were called, “Confronting Gravity: Aworkshop to explore fundamental questions in physics and cosmology.” The goal of the conference wasto establish what the current consensus is, if any, for defining gravity.The conference was financed by science philanthropist, Jeffrey Epstein and his foundation, J. EpsteinVirgin Islands Inc. It was organized by physicist and cosmologist, Lawrence Krauss, FoundationProfessor of the School of Earth and Space Exploration and Physics Department, and Inaugural Directorof the Origins Initiative at Arizona State University. The Nobel laureates included, particle physicists,Gerardus't Hooft, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. Other scientists in attendance were theoreticalphysicist, Stephen Hawking, Jim Peebles from Princeton University, Alan Guth from MIT, Kip Thornefrom Caltech, Lisa Randall from Harvard University, Barry Barish from LIGO, the gravitational waveobservatory, a bevy of observational cosmologists and Maria Spiropulu from CERN near Geneva,Switzerland.Understanding gravity is critical right now Krauss argues because “many of the key ideas at the forefrontof particle physics cosmology relate to our lack of understanding of how to accommodate gravity andquantum mechanics.” Indeed, conventional notions of gravity require little to no spatial energy for entitiesto be bound to the other, a sense of anti-gravity or vacuum. But on the quantum level, subatomic particlesare bound by the exchange of increasingly intense energy parcels: electrons by the exchange of photons,neutrons and protons (made up of quarks) by the exchange of gluons, and the decay of quarks and leptonsby the exchange of vector W and Z bosons.To make it even harder, there is a lack of experimental evidence in the murky field of quantum gravity,and classical physics has really only observed the effects of gravity over larger ranges of 50 orders of magnitude of mass, i.e., for masses of objects from about 10−23 to 1030 kg.The outcome of the conference however was quite astounding, Krauss asserts. There was a generalconsensus that gravity might exist in the form of gravitational waves and that these waves could be a partof “what we've been calling, empty space.”The notion of gravitational waves is not new. They were predicted by Einstein to exist from the curvatureof space time, and although they've never been directly detected, there is indirect evidence from the studyof binary stars, neutron stars and black holes. What bothers Krauss though is that there's still a lack of basic physics to explain them. “...We have these ideas and these parameters and every experiment isconsistent with this picture, and yet nothing points to the fundamental physics beneath it.” Page 1/ Press Release DistributionTerms of Use  At the conference though, Krauss and others focused on finding such an explanation. Empty space, theysuggested, is perhaps neither full, nor empty but is rather in a state of flux between intense energy spurtsand their cancellation. “We know empty space isn't empty, because it's full of these virtual particles thatpop in and out of existence,” Krauss points out, “If you try and calculate the energy level in a hydrogenatom, and you don't include those virtual particles, you get a wrong answer. Every now and then you havean electron positron pair that pops into existence,” he continues. “And [while] the electron wants to hangaround near the proton because it's oppositely charged, the positron is pushed to the outskirts of the atom,and while there, they change the atom's charged distribution in a very small, but calculable, way.Feynman and others calculated that effect, which allows us to get agreement between theory andobservation at the level of nine decimal places. It's the best prediction in all of science. There's no otherplace in science where, from fundamental principles, you can calculate a number and compare it to anexperiment at nine decimal places like that.”But if empty space is full of intense virtual particles, not to mention other particles, it's equally full of thecancellation of energy. Symmetry in nature occurs all the time, Krauss notes and can produce exactcancellations, for example the peak of a wave coinciding with the trough of another. Absolutecancellation is mathematically challenging though, Krauss points out. “You can't take two [energy]numbers that are very large and expect them to exactly cancel leaving something that's 120 orders of magnitude smaller left over. And that's what would be required to have an energy that was comparablewith the observational upper limits on the energy of empty space.”To deal with this difficulty, Krauss simply derives that the energy of empty space could never be exactlyzero. And to distinguish it from pure empty space, one would have to measure it over time as it fluctuates.“The only observation that would give you positive information is if you could measure it changing overtime. Then you'd know it wasn't vacuum energy.”This view of not quite empty space, made up of intense energies that almost cancel each other out, mightvery well help to explain the physics of gravitational waves beyond the consequences of curved spacetime: not just in their architecture but their capacity to occur in both the high energy quantum realm aswell as the apparent voids of gravitational space.“Right now we're floundering,” Krauss admits. “We're floundering, in a lot of different areas.” But from agravity point of view, that approach might well lead to a unified theory.Contact:Christina Galbraith Page 2/ Press Release DistributionTerms of Use  Contact Information: The Jeffrey Epstein FoundationChristina Galbraith(917) 573-7604Contact via Email Online Version of Press Release: You can read the online version of this press release at: News Image: Page 3/ Press Release DistributionTerms of Use
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