Script for Hyperventilation

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  (SLIDE 1)Acid base balance is a homeostac mechanism in the human body that strives to maintain the opmal pH in the body. he pH is the measurement used to determine the acidity or al!alinity o arterial blood. he normal pH o arterial blood is #.$%&#.'% I there is loered pH(acidosis) due to decreased respiratory rate it is called hypovenlaon or respiratory acidosis. And i there is increased pH (al!alosis) due to increased respiratory rate it is called hypervenlaon. Metabolic acidosis  is the all in plasma H*+$ &&&, lo arterial pH less than #.$% ith plasma carbonate less than -- molL  there ill be a compensatory hypervenlaon. /educed H*+$ is to due increased acid producon decreased renal acid e0creon. Someone ith metabolic acidosis ould oen have a ast heartbeat and breathe rapidly. In respiratory acidosis, is a condion that occurs hen lun2s cant remove enou2h o the carbon dio0ide produced by the body e0cess *+- ith a pressure o 2reater than ''mmH2 causes the pH o blood and other bodily 3uids to decrease ma!in2 them too acidic.Al!alosis occurs hen your body has too many bases it can occur due to decreased blood levels o carbon dio0ide hich is an acid it can also occur due to increased blood levels o bicarbonate hich is a base. Respiratory alkalosis  is de4ned as a pH above #.'% due to an arterial carbon dio0ide tension less than $% mmH2 hich there is a carbonic acid de4cit. Metabolic alkalosis is characteri5ed by a primary increase in bicarbonate concentraon because o a loss o H6 rom the body there ill be a 2ain in pH and H*+$ hich means it develops hen your body loses too much acid or 2ains too much base. +ne o the si2ns o metabolic al!alosis is slo breathin2. (SLIDE -)he renal system can compensate or al!alosis by the retainin2 hydro2en ions in the !idneys and e0cren2 bicarbonate ions to loer the pH levels bac! to normal ran2e. (SLIDE $)Since carbon dio0ide reacts ith ater to orm carbonic acid a reacon cataly5ed by carbonic anhydrase. An increase in *+- results in a decrease in blood pH resuln2 in hemo2lobin proteins releasin2 their load o o0y2en. *onversely a decrease in carbon dio0ide provo!es an increase in pH hich results in hemo2lobin pic!in2 up more o0y2en.(SLIDE ')In normal condions the 7*+- is at '8 and the pH is at #.'1 hich are both in the normal ran2e. (SLIDE %)Here there is hypervenlaon because the minimum reach -1.-9 hich is already less than $% hich is beyond the normal ran2e and the ma0imum pH reached #.99 hich is also beyond the normal ran2e. he hi2her pea!s in the tracin2 indicate a lar2er volume o air.  (SLIDE 9):hen there is a return in normal breathin2 aer hypervenlan2 there is a brie period o about 18 seconds hen the breathe is held in order to retain some carbon dio0ide.
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