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Cognitive Therapy and Dementia Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and Dementia Megan Canney February 12, 2018 AAST Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and Dementia 1 Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and Dementia Dementia is not a normal part of aging; it is a condition that continue
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   Cognitive Therapy and Dementia Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and Dementia Megan Canney February 12, 2018 AAST   Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and Dementia 1 Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and Dementia Dementia is not a normal part of aging; it is a condition that continues to affect people everyday. While the disorder cannot be cured, there are many medications that are used to slow the effects of dementia. These medications can place a burden on the patient, caregiver, and family. An additional treatment to lessen the effects of dementia is Cognitive Stimulation Therapy. This form of therapy includes “physical activity programs, cognitive training,  psychological treatments, aromatherapy, light therapy, cognitive rehabilitation, cognitive stimulation” (Vilela, Pacheco, Latorraca, Pachito & Riera, 2017, pg 2). Cognitive Therapy is a treatment that can better a patient’s life and the lives around him/her. This paper will discuss what Cognitive Stimulation Therapy is and how it can be used to help people with dementia. Medication “Antipsychotics are often used to treat refractory or severe behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, although the FDA has not approved this use because of low quality evidence of benefit and good-quality evidence of harm” (Reese, Thiel, Cocker, 2016, pg. 277). Medication focuses on solving the symptoms rather than bettering the patient’s life as a whole. Patients with dementia “are commonly prescribed complex medication regimes and on average receive five different medicines” (Maidment, Aston, Moutela, Fox, & Hilton, 2017, pg. 2). Taking five medications at one time can be a very daunting task for anyone. Without help and organization of medicine before “[a dementia patient] wouldn’t know which ones to take, there are too many of them” (Maidment, et al., 2017, pg. 3). Often times pills are lost and the  prescription does not last as long as it was intended. Caretakers cannot call the pharmacy if it is a   Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and Dementia 2 weekend or a holiday, so they have to resort to alternatives, cutting the pill. By cutting one pill to create more pills, the dosage will be altered (Maidment, et al., 2017). Cholinesterase Inhibitors One of the leading medications for dementia is cholinesterase inhibitors. “Cholinesterase inhibitor drugs stop or inhibit enzymes from breaking down acetylcholine when it travels from one cell to another. This means that the acetylcholine, which is in short supply in people with Alzheimer’s disease, is not destroyed so quickly” (Dementia Australia, 2017, pg. 1). Because it isn’t destroyed as fast as dementia without the drugs, the progress of dementia slows. Harm by Medication While the medications do help, they are accompanied by many side effects. These side effects include: vomiting, dizziness, fainting, diarrhea, and hallucinations (Ali, Schleret, Reilly, Chen & Abagyan, 2015). “Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are efficient symptomatic treatments against dementia, however we need to consider the risk profiles” (Ali et al., 2015, pg. 8). “These drugs appear to have only a limited positive effect in treating [behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia] but can cause significant harm to people with dementia” (van Marwijk & Spiegel, 2009, pg. 191). “As the disease progresses, people with dementia are at risk of developing medication related problems and becoming non-adherent to prescribed regimens. This can be caused by a number of factors, such as inadequate knowledge regarding medication, which may result in incorrect doses or administering the treatment at an inappropriate time of the day” (Ashton, Hilton, Moutela, Shaw & Maidment, 2017, pg. 2). Option of Medication   Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and Dementia 3 “It is very difficult to predict how and when things will worsen” (Passmore, 2013, pg. 2). Because of this, it is also very difficult to discuss plans of medication with the patient. Questions about side-effects and the greater risk of a stroke or death can’t be answered. It is important though, to inform patient’s family about the cognitive and mental decline that accompanies dementia. “It seems important that patients [families] understand this early in the course of illness because they can then enter into discussions around goals of care and plan ahead for a time when [the patient] may be in a life-limiting state of suffering and simultaneously not capable of making decisions for themselves” (Passmore, 2013, pg. 2). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy “The central assumption underlying cognitive stimulation is that a lack of cognitive stimulation can hasten decline in both normal aging and dementia” (Hall, Orrell, Stott & Spector, 2013). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) is an additional form of treatment for patients with dementia. “   CST is a brief treatment for people with mild to moderate dementia” (Cognitive Stimulation Therapy, 2018, pg 1). This form of therapy aims to “stimulate and engage people with dementia whilst providing an optimal learning environment and the social benefits of a group” (Cognitive Stimulation Therapy, 2018, pg. 1). Activities involved in CST include  physical games, sound, visual, and childhood (Cognitive Stimulation Therapy, 2018). Benefits of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy This form of treatment had bettered dementia patients’ lives in communication, social interaction, and daily living. These are all categories that fall into the quality of life assessment. A better outcome in aspects of life such as these, increases the quality of life score for a dementia  patient (de Boer, Hamers, Zwakhalen, Tan, & Verbeek, 2017).   The use of cognitive practice has
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