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Assignments Master of Business Administration Semester 2 Submitted by: ANOOP KUMAR VERMA ROLL NO. 521023181 MB0044 Production & Operations Management Assignment Set- 1 2|521023181 Q.1 Explain in brief the origins of Just In Time. Explain the different types of wastes that can be eliminated using JIT. Answer: Just In Time JIT is a manufacturing/delivery process where a minimum of goods are kept in stock. Items are planned to arrive precisely at the time they are required for use or despat
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   AssignmentsMaster ofBusinessAdministration Semester 2 Submitted by:  ANOOP KUMAR VERMA ROLL NO. 521023181    2 | 521023181   MB0044 Production & OperationsManagement Assignment Set- 1    3 | 521023181   Q.1 Explain in brief the srcins of Just In Time. Explain the different types of wastes that can be eliminated using JIT. Answer:  Just In Time JIT is a manufacturing/delivery process where a minimum of goods are kept instock. Items are planned to arrive precisely at the time they are required foruse or despatch.JIT can be considered to be a philosophy of manufacturing founded on theprinciples of elimination of all waste and thereby increasing productivity.When the philosophy is applied at workplace, the approach resultsin providing parts in just right quantities at the right time. This resultsin economy of material and time thus lowering the costs and increasingproductivity. Since no extra parts are available, production of only good partsis forced on the system. JIT has been extended to mean continuousimprovement. These principles are being applied to engineering, purchasing,accounting and data processing also.In these days when technology is able to provide us with highly accurateequipments which have high capacities and the business has become globalmeaning that both suppliers and customers are widely accessible. To remaincompetitive, cost efficiencies have become compulsory. JIT helps in thisprocess. It is extended to the shop floor and inventory systems of the vendorsalso. Origin of JIT   Just In Time , or  JIT  , was coined to name and describe a manufacturingprocesses developed by Toyota in Japan in the 1950s and which spread to theUS and UK in the 1970s. Within Toyota Taiichi Ohno is most commonlycredited as the father/srcinator of this way of working. The beginnings of thisproduction system are rooted in the historical situation that Toyota faced.After the Second World War the president of Toyota said Catch up withAmerica in three years, otherwise the automobile industry of Japan will notsurvive . At that time one American car worker produced approximately ninetimes as much as a Japanese car worker. Taiichi Ohno examined the Americanindustry and found that American manufacturers made great use of economicorder quantities - the traditional idea that it is best to make a lot or batch of     4 | 521023181   an item (such as a particular model of car or a particular component) beforeswitching to a new item. They also made use of economic order quantities interms of ordering and stocking the many parts needed to assemble a car.Nevertheless, the credit for the initiative should go to Henry Ford. Hedescribed essentially the same process, although it wasn't then named, in hisautobiography  My Life and Work  , 1922: Kanban System Kanban for material flow Kanban means a ‗Visible Card‘ and also ‗Signal‘ in Japanese language. These cards are used for communicating the quantities required at the ‗customers‘ point for his use. This means that by the card theoperator next in line, who is the customer, decides how many units he needsand asks for them. The operator who receives the card should make only thatmany and supply. Similarly he makes a demand on his predecessor by a ‘kanban‘ and receives only the required quantity. This is called the pull system. The containers are designed to hold specific components in certainnumbers. Kanban system is a physical control system which uses cards andcontainers materials must not be removed without posting a card at thereceiving post. Wastes that can be eliminated using JIT  Taichi Ohno, a production engineer with Toyota Corporation identified sevenwastes to be addressed by the Toyota system, and they have become known asthe 7Ws which are detailed below: 1. Defects The simplest form of waste is components or products that do not meet thespecification. We all know about the Japanese scaring us with their target of single-figure reject rates when we realised that they measured in parts permillion and that 1% defects gave a figure of 10,000.  2. Over-Production A key element of JIT was making only the quantity required of anycomponent or product. This challenged the Western premise of the EconomicOrder Quantity (EOQ) which was built on acceptance of fixed ordering costs,built around set-up times, and thus the need to spread these fixed costs overlarge batches.
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