strategii comportamentale

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subcapitolul despre management mediului de invatare (pag. 16-28); Unit III Behavioral Strategies In this unit I present strategies that will help you control your time and your physical and social environments. For the most part, these strategies involve behavioral changes that you can initiate to affect your learning. You cannot control your life without controlling your use of time. In chapter 6, I ask you to analyze your use of time and teach you a management system to use your time -95Que
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  subcapitolul despre management mediului de invatare (pag. 16-28); Unit III Behavioral Strategies In this unit I present strategies that will help you control your time and your physical and socialenvironments. For the most part, these strategies involve behavioral changes that you can initiate to affectyour learning. You cannot control your life without controlling your use of time. In chapter 6, I ask you toanalyze your use of time and teach you a management system to use your time-95- Questia Media America, Inc. www.questia.com   Publication Information: Book Title: Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success: A Self-Management Approach.Contributors: Myron H. Dembo - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication Year:2000. Page Number: 95. more effectively. In chapter 7, I describe procedures to help you manage your environment. Many studentshave academic problems because they do not manage their physical and social environments, instead theirenvironments manage them! The key aspect of management of the physical environment is one's studyenvironment. Management of one's social environment focuses on knowing when and how to seek andobtain help.-96- Questia Media America, Inc. www.questia.com   Publication Information: Book Title: Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success: A Self-Management Approach.Contributors: Myron H. Dembo - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication Year:2000. Page Number: 96. 6 Time Management The goal in this chapter is to help you manage your time more effectively. Problems in time managementcan be related to one or more of the following: uncertainty of what is to be accomplished (i.e., lack of goals), failure to break down the goals into a series of tasks, or lack of awareness about how to managetime or how much time is needed to complete a given task ( Britton & Glynn, 1989).One of the mostimportant factors influencing the attainment of goals is the efficient use of time. In high school, most of your time was structured for you because you were in school most of the day. For the most part, your timemanagement involved structuring your study time after school. College life is more demanding becausethere are more tasks to accomplish. Your class schedule can vary greatly; for example, you may only haveclasses three or four times a week and might complete your classes by noon. In general, you have tomanage more hours of time and often do not have your parents around to offer suggestions for how youshould do it.After studying this chapter, you will be able to:ã Analyze your use of timeã Develop a time-management systemã Use strategies to reduce procrastination WHAT IS TIME MANAGEMENT? Smith ( 1994) defined time as a continuum in which events succeed one another from past through presentto future (p. 20). The basic aspect of time is-97- Questia Media America, Inc. www.questia.com   Publication Information: Book Title: Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success: A Self-Management Approach.Contributors: Myron H. Dembo - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication Year:2000. Page Number: 97. an event. Everything in our lives is an event. Getting out of bed in the morning, driving or walking to class,reading this book are all events. Time is the occurrence of all the events in our lives in sequence, one after  the other. When we talk about time management, we are really talking about event or task management.After all, the purpose of time management is to ensure that we complete all of our important tasks eachday. It is not simply to manage time! Smith ( 1994) stated: Controlling your life means controlling yourtime, and controlling your time means controlling the events in your life (p. 20).What are your Impressions of this student? I found three major concerns when I first read his journal. First,it is clear that he does not feel in control of his life. It appears that events are controlling his life. Hementions two other problems: he has no priority concerning the many tasks he must complete and he is aprocrastinator. As you read the material in this chapter, think about the suggestions you could give thisstudent to help him deal with his problems. HOW DO YOU USE YOUR TIME? Everyone wastes some time. A problem occurs, however, when the amount of time that one wastesinterferes with the attainment of personal goals. The purpose of the following exercise is to identify yourmajor time wasters. Next, you will be asked to account for your time in a typical week to gain furtherinsights into your use of time.-98- Questia Media America, Inc. www.questia.com   Publication Information: Book Title: Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success: A Self-Management Approach.Contributors: Myron H. Dembo - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication Year:2000. Page Number: 98. EXERCISE 6.1: SELF-OBSERVATION: ASSESSING TIME WASTERS Directions: The following list identifies on a scale of 1 (highest) to 10 (lowest), the greatest time wastersreported by college students ( Chaney, 1991). As you review the items, identify the time wasters you thinkgive you the greatest difficulty. Rank them 1 to 5 with the number 1 as your greatest time waster. Identifyadditional time wasters that you think should be added to the list since this study was conducted in 1991.Have you tried to eliminate your time wasters? If so, how successful have you been? Share some of yoursuccessful strategies with students in your class.Time Wasters My Rank1. Procrastination2. Watching television3. Visiting with friendsand socializing4. Daydreaming5. Figuring out howto do an assignment6. Physical problems,such as lack of energy7. Sleeping too much8. Lack of planning9. Waiting for others10. Talking on thetelephone EXERCISE 6.2: SELF-OBSERVATION: ASSESSING USE OF TIME Directions: Students who have difficulty with time management often lack awareness about how they spendtheir time. This exercise gives you an opportunity to evaluate your actual use of time. Fill in your activitieslast week in the following calendar. Next, using the Time Analysis table, determine how much time youspend in each activity listed for each day of the week as well as the total for the entire week. When youtotal your time, round to the nearest half hour  (e.g., 9 hours and 20 minutes sleeping = 9.5 hours).  -99- Questia Media America, Inc. www.questia.com   Publication Information: Book Title: Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success: A Self-Management Approach.Contributors: Myron H. Dembo - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication Year:2000. Page Number: 99. My Use of TimeMonday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday 6-7 a.m.7-88-99-1010-1111-1212-1 p.m.1-22-33-44-55-6-100- Questia Media America, Inc. www.questia.com   Publication Information: Book Title: Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success: A Self-Management Approach.Contributors: Myron H. Dembo - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication Year:2000. Page Number: 100. Time AnalysisActivitiesM T W TH F SA SU TOTAL eatingsleepingclassstudyingworkingpersonal chores andresponsibilitiessocial activitiessports andrecreationgamesrelaxingmiscellaneous-102- Questia Media America, Inc. www.questia.com   Publication Information: Book Title: Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success: A Self-Management Approach.Contributors: Myron H. Dembo - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication Year:2000. Page Number: 102. List the three activities on which you are spending the most time (other than sleeping):1. 2. 3.Summarize what you have learned about your personal time-use habits. Be specific (e.g., When do youstudy Do you spend more than 2 hours a day watching television or talking on the telephone? Do you tendto accomplish your goals?) Does your response differ from your srcinal perception of time wasters reported  in Exercise 6.1? What do you need to do to become more effective in achieving your goals? WHAT ARE SOME GOOD TEME-MANAGEMFNTSTRATEGIES? Set Regular Study Periods Setting a regular time to study each day helps protect you from constant conflicts with other tasks thatyou must complete. There always will be unexpected events that rob time from your studying. If circumstances arise that prohibit you from studying, adjust your schedule. If you do not establish a settime, the probability increases that you will become involved with other tasks. Study in an Environment That is Relatively Free of Distractions and Interruptions Analyze your present study environment and determine whether it is the best place for you. Most collegestudents study in one of five locations: home, dorm, apartment, fraternity or sorority house, or library.Wherever you decide to study, consider the level of distractions present. If you find you are constantlydistracted by discussions, telephone calls, music, or other factors, consider another location (see Exercise7.1). Schedule Tasks So They Can Be Accomplished in 30- to 60-Minute Blocks of Time There are two major reasons for block planning. First, it is wise to develop intermediate goals and specifictasks for each major goal identified. Organizing time around intermediate goals and daily tasks helps lead toa greater sense of efficacy as each intermediate goal and task is completed. For example, in developing aplan for writing a paper, you may decide to spend 30 minutes outlining the paper and another 30 minutes todetermine what topics will be covered. Second, many students miss great opportunities for studying byneglecting time between classes. A few short intervals quickly add up to an hour or more of study duringthe day. Consider short intervals of study as well as longer intervals when you plan your study schedule.-103- Questia Media America, Inc. www.questia.com   Publication Information: Book Title: Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success: A Self-Management Approach.Contributors: Myron H. Dembo - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication Year:2000. Page Number: 103. How to Get the Most Out of Even a Few Minutes The 5-Minute Fanatic can . . .● Set up a place to study for the day.● Do a relaxation exercise to calm the mind before studying for an exam.● Organize class notes in preparation for studying.● Put in a load of laundry.● Make phone calls to schedule appointments. The 15-Minute Organizer can . . . ● Review class notes.● Review the next day's activity schedule.● Balance a checkbook.● Outline a term paper assignment.● Write a letter.Adapted from Scharf, 1985, pp. 78-79 Take Short Breaks How long you study is determined by your motivation and concentration. In general, most students need a
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