Stu R C8e Ch12 10

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2. L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. <ul><li>Why Human Resources Is Important: The HRM Process…
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  • 2. L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. <ul><li>Why Human Resources Is Important: The HRM Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how an organization’s human resources can be a significant source of competitive advantage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List eight activities necessary for staffing the organization and sustaining high employee performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Resource Planning; Recruitment/ Decruitment; Selection; Orientation; Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast job analysis, job description, and job specification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the major sources of potential job candidates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the different selection devices and which work best for different jobs. </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. <ul><li>Human Resource Planning; Recruitment/ Decruitment; Selection; Orientation; Training (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell what a realistic job preview is an why it’s important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain why orientation is so important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the different types of training and how that training can be provided. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee Performance Management; Compensation/Benefits; Career Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the different performance appraisal methods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the factors that influence employee compensation and benefits. </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. <ul><li>Employee Performance Management; Compensation/Benefits; Career Development (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe skill-based pay systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe career development for today’s employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Issues in Human Resource Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how managers can manage downsizing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss how managers can manage workforce diversity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell what sexual harassment is and what managers need to know about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how organizations are dealing with work-life balances. </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. The Importance of Human Resource Management (HRM) <ul><li>Necessary part of the organizing function of management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting, training, and evaluating the work force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As an important strategic tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HRM helps establish an organization’s sustainable competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adds value to the firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High performance work practices lead to both high individual and high organizational performance </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. The HRM Process <ul><li>Functions of the HRM Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring that competent employees are identified and selected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing employees with up-to-date knowledge and skills to do their jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring that the organization retains competent and high-performing employees who are capable of high performance. </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Environmental Factors Affecting HRM <ul><li>Labor Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organization that represents workers and seeks to protect their interests through collective bargaining. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collective Bargaining Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A contractual agreement between a firm and a union elected to represent a bargaining unit of employees of the firm in bargaining for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wage, hours, and working conditions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Environmental Factors Affecting HRM (cont’d) <ul><li>Affirmative Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The requirement that organizations take proactive steps to ensure the full participation of protected groups in its workforce. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laws and Regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit managerial discretion in hiring, promoting, and discharging employees. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Managing Human Resources <ul><li>Human Resource (HR) Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process by which managers ensure that they have the right number and kinds of people in the right places, and at the right times, who are capable of effectively and efficiently performing their tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps avoid sudden talent shortages and surpluses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steps in HR planning: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing current human resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing future needs for human resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a program to meet those future needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Current Assessment <ul><li>Human Resource Inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A review of the current make-up of the organization’s current resource status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An assessment that defines a job and the behaviors necessary to perform the job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires conducting interviews, engaging in direct observation, and collecting the self-reports of employees and their managers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 11. Current Assessment (cont’d) <ul><li>Job Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A written statement of what the job holder does, how it is done, and why it is done. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job Specification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A written statement of the minimum qualifications that a person must possess to perform a given job successfully. </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Meeting Future Human Resource Needs Supply of Employees Demand for Employees Factors Affecting Staffing Strategic Goals Forecast demand for products and services Availability of knowledge, skills, and abilities
  • 13. Recruitment and Decruitment <ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of locating, identifying, and attracting capable applicants to an organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decruitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of reducing a surplus of employees in the workforce of an organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-recruiting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting employees through the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational web sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online recruiters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 14. Selection <ul><li>Selection Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An exercise in predicting which applicants, if hired, will be (or will not be) successful in performing well on the criteria the organization uses to evaluate performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection errors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reject errors for potentially successful applicants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accept errors for ultimately poor performers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. Validity and Reliability <ul><li>Validity (of Prediction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A proven relationship between the selection device used and some relevant criterion for successful performance in an organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High tests scores equate to high job performance; low scores to poor performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliability (of Prediction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of consistency with which a selection device measures the same thing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual test scores obtained with a selection device are consistent over multiple testing instances. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. Types of Selection Devices <ul><li>Application Forms </li></ul><ul><li>Written Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Background Investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Physical examinations </li></ul>
  • 17. Written Tests <ul><li>Types of Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence: how smart are you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aptitude: can you learn to do it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude: how do you feel about it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability: can you do it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest: do you want to do it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal Challenges to Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of job-relatedness of test to job requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination in equal employment opportunity against members of protected classes </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Performance Simulation Tests <ul><li>Testing an applicant’s ability to perform actual job behaviors, use required skills, and demonstrate specific knowledge of the job. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requiring applicants to actually perform a task or set of tasks that are central to successful job performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated facilities in which job candidates undergo a series of performance simulation tests to evaluate their managerial potential. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 19. Other Selection Approaches <ul><li>Situational Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews in which candidates are evaluated on how well they handle role play in mock scenarios. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Background Investigations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification of application data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference checks: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack validity because self-selection of references ensures only positive outcomes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Examinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for physical requirements and for insurance purposes related to pre-existing conditions. </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Other Selection Approaches (cont’d) <ul><li>Realistic Job Preview (RJP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of relating to an applicant both the positive and the negative aspects of the job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages mismatched applicants to withdraw. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aligns successful applicants’ expectations with actual job conditions; reducing turnover. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 21. Orientation <ul><li>Transitioning a new employee into the organization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work-unit orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarizes new employee with work-unit goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifies how his or her job contributes to unit goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces he or she to his or her coworkers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informs new employee about the organization’s objectives, history, philosophy, procedures, and rules. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes a tour of the entire facility </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 22. Employee Performance Management <ul><li>Performance Management System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A process establishing performance standards and appraising employee performance in order to arrive at objective HR decisions and to provide documentation in support of those decisions. </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Performance Appraisal Methods <ul><li>Written Essays </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic rating scales </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiperson comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Management By Objectives (MBO) </li></ul><ul><li>360 Degree Feedback </li></ul>
  • 24. Compensation and Benefits <ul><li>Benefits of a Fair, Effective, and Appropriate Compensation System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps attract and retain high-performance employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts on the strategic performance of the firm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Compensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base wage or salary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wage and salary add-ons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill-based pay </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Career Development <ul><li>Career Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sequence of positions held by a person during his or her lifetime. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Career Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides for information, assessment, and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps attract and retain highly talented people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boundaryless Career </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A career in which individuals, not organizations, define career progression and organizational loyalty </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Contemporary HRM Issues <ul><li>Downsizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The planned elimination of jobs in an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open and honest communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reassure survivors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Managing Work Force Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment for diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection without discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation and training that is effective </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Contemporary HRM Issues (cont’d) <ul><li>Sexual Harassment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when submission or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual’s employment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An offensive or hostile environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An environment in which a person is affected by elements of a sexual nature. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 28. Contemporary HRM Issues (cont’d) <ul><li>Work-Life Balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees have personal lives that they don’t leave behind when they come to work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations have become more attuned to their employees by offering family-friendly benefits: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-site child care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer day camps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flextime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><
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