Tanker Assignment

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Tanker Assignment Project Leader: Alex Caron November 4th, 2011 Students were asked to read through the chapter assigned to them, make a brief summary of what they had learned and to formulate five questions and answers. My main source that I used was Tanker Operations by Mark Huber (2001), and some additional material could be found in Cargo Work by DJ House. For this project, I will compile together all assignments. I will leave the student’s content as is; I will only correct spelling mist
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  Tanker Assignment Project Leader: Alex Caron November 4 th , 2011  Students were asked to read through the chapter assigned to them, make a brief summary of whatthey had learned and to formulate five questions and answers. My main source that I used wasTanker Operations by Mark Huber (2001), and some additional material could be found in CargoWork by DJ House.For this project, I will compile together all assignments. I will leave the student’s content as is; Iwill only correct spelling mistakes.Matthew Jennex did Hull Construction. (Page 3)Tim Macdonald did the Inert Gas System (Pages 4 and 5)Melanie Wynter did the Piping system (Page 6)Mallori Theriault did the Venting system (Page 7)Leslie Boudreau did Cargo pumps (Page 8 and 9)Evan Hardy did Transfer Operations (Page 10 and 11)Adam Tapper did Tank Cleaning(Page 12)I did Cargo Measurement (Pages 13 and 14)Marks:Matthew Jennex 4/5Tim Macdonald 5/5Melanie Wynter 5/5Mallori Theriault 5/5Leslie Boudreau 5/5Evan Hardy 5/5Adam Tapper 4/5Me 5/5  Matthew JennexHull ConstructionMy chapter includes, transverse and longitudinal sections. The chapter goes into detail about comparingthe Exxon Valdez in 1989 and newly constructed oil tankers. There is a lot of controversy that goes inwith double-hull requirements.1. What does the United States Coast Guard (USCG) define a tank vessel as?Chapter 1 Page 3 Par.2 A vessel that is constructed or adapted primarily to carry, or that carries, oil or hazardous material in cargo residue.2. How is free surface created?Chapter 1 Page 5 Par. 2 Free surface is an effect created when liquid moves about in an unrestrictedfashion within a compartment such as a cargo or ballast tank. The resultant shift of weight has an adverseimpact on the stability of the vessel, so every effort is made to minimize shifting.3. What are typical methods of reducing the free surface effects?Chapter 1 Page 5 Par. 2 The typical methods of reducing the free surface effect include keeping thenumber of slack cargo and ballast tanks to a minimum, constructing smaller compartments( subdivisions),and utilizing partial bulkheads( swash plates or swash bulkheads).4. In regards to hull requirements, what did the grounding of the Exxon Valdez in 1989 prompt indomestic and international newly constructed oil tankers?Chapter 1 Page 5 Par. 3 The grounding of the Exxon Valdez in 1989 prompted domestic and internationalrequirements calling for newly constructed oil tankers to be fitted with a double hull.5. What created tremendous controversy within United States and international shipping communities inregards to hull requirements?Chapter 1 Page 7 Par. 2 The double-hull requirement created tremendous controversy.  Tim Macdonald Inert Gas SystemsInert gas systems came about after a series of explosions occurred aboard threeVLCC’s in December of 1969. After an extensive investigation to determine thesource of the explosions, it was concluded that static electrical discharge was the probable ignition point which was generated by high-capacity (fixed) washingmachines. Because these washing machines were recognized as a valuable tool for cleaning tanks, the industry began pursuing methods of controlling the atmosphere inthe tank, primarily oxygen. A gas or mixture of gases containing insufficient oxygento support the combustion of hydrocarbon is called an ‘inert gas’.On most ships, inert gases are created from the vessel’s own exhaust, whether it be aflu gas systems on steamships or oil-fired inert gas generators on motor ships and barges. The exhaust is drawn from the uptakes and run through a scrubber which performs four main functions: cooling, removing solids (soot), removing thecorrosives (sulfur oxides), and removing entrained water. It is then delivered to thecargo tanks by large fans. In some cases where concerns about flammability or thecontact of sensitive cargoes with oxygen or moisture are present, a nitrogen system isused.After a tank is inerted, it must be carefully monitored. A positive deck pressure must be maintained to prevent ingress of air and a high pressure must also be avoided. Aseries of pipes and valves allow the tank to be purged or topped up as necessary andaudio and visual alarms are required for both high and low pressure conditions.Five Questions – Inert Gas Systems1. Name the main system components of an ‘Inert Gas System’.Ans. Boiler, Uptake Bellows, Scrubber , Fresh-Air Inlet, Inert Gas Fans, Gas PressureRegulating Valve (GRV), Vent Line, Deck Seal, Non-return Valve, Deck IsolationValve, Deck Distribution System, Cargo Tank Isolation, and Pressure-Vacuum Relief Devices (pgs 308-316 Huber)2. Name four types of gas replacement and the two methods used.Ans. Primary inerting, Purging, Gas-freeing, and Re-inerting (pg 322 Huber) Methods – Dilution and Displacement (pg 323 Huber)
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