Tech Transfer

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Exponential Growth of Technology in India has played a significant role in all round development and growth of economy in our country. Technology generally would comprise the following elements:       Process Know how Design Know how Engineering know how Manufacturing know how Application Know how Management know how Technology can either be developed through own research and development or it can be purchased through indigenous or imported sources. India has opted for a judicious mix of
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    Exponential Growth of Technology in India has played a significant role in all rounddevelopment and growth of economy in our country.   Technology generally would comprisethe following elements:    Process Know how    Design Know how    Engineering know how    Manufacturing know how    Application Know how    Management know howTechnology can either be developed through own research and development or it can bepurchased through indigenous or imported sources. India has opted for a judicious mix of indigenous and imported technology. Purchase of technology is commonly called “Technology transfer” and it is generally covered by a technology transfer agreement.   „Technology transfer‟ means the use of knowledge and when we talk about transfer of the technology, we really mean the transfer of knowledge by way of an agreement between thestates or companies and at last countries. „Transfer‟ does not mean the movement or delivery; transfer can only happen if technology is used. So, it is application of technology andconsidered as process by which technology developed for one purpose is used either indifferent applications or by a new user.Technology transfer must be recognised as a broad and complex process if it is to contributeto sustained and equitable development. The end result for the recipient must be the ability touse, replicate, improve and, possibly, re-sell the technology. Transfer of technology is morethan just the moving of high-tech equipment from the developed to the developing world, orwithin the developing world. Moreover, it encompasses far than equipment and other so- called “hard” technologies, for it also includes total systems and their component parts, including know-how, goods and services, equipment, and organizational and managerialprocedures. Thus technology transfer is the suite of processes encompassing all dimensionsof the srcins, flows and uptake of know-how, experience and equipment amongst, across andwithin countries, stakeholder, organizations and institutions.If the transfer of inadequate, unsustainable, or unsafe technologies is to be avoided,technology recipients should be able to identify and select technologies that are appropriate totheir actual needs, circumstances and capacities. Therefore, a key element of this wider viewof technology transfer is choice. There is no single strategy for successful transfer that isappropriate to all situations. Desirably a technology recipient will choose a technology whichat least meets the definition of   being “environmentally sound” and by environment we mean business, socio cultural, economic and political environment. Preferably a technologyrecipient will go even further, and select a “sustainable technology” –  i.e. a technology that isnot only environmentally sound but also economically viable and socially acceptable. Onlysuch technologies contribute towards sustainable development.    The Seven “C”s for the Transfer of Technology     Context: Technology transfer does not take place in a vacuum. The performance of a given technologyis dependent on a wide range of factors, making identification of an appropriate technologysomewhat problematic. For example, a technology that is assessed to be appropriate in agiven locale, culture, economic setting or stage in its life cycle may not be in another. Itsperformance may be influenced markedly by the availability of supporting infrastructure andby access to the expertise necessary for its management, maintenance and monitoring.Moreover, a technology that qualifies as being appropriate at one point of time, may not do soat another  –  the performance criteria against which it is assessed may change as aconsequence of new information or changing values or attitudes; a technical breakthroughmay give rise to more desirable alternatives. It is therefore vital that recipients and users of atechnology are able to choose an option that meets their specific needs and capacities. It is, of course, highly desirable that the technology is also found to be economically viable andsocially acceptable, and hence sustainable. Challenges: There are many barriers to successful technology transfer. All along the transfer path, fromthe supply side of technology transfer (the innovators and developers) to the demand side (therecipients and users), impediments occur at every node and, due to restrictions on themovement of information and materials, for every linkage in the technology transfer chain.Examples of challenges include:Shortfalls in technology creation and innovation, underperformance in technology sourcing,insufficient and unverified information. Small and medium enterprises are disproportionatelyimpacted by these challenges. Choice: A key aim of barrier removal, that is of facilitating technology transfer, is ensuring thattechnology recipients and users are able to make informed choices by being able to identifyand procure the most appropriate technology for a given application in a given locale.Several requirements must be met, including: needs well defined, documented andunderstood; several technology alternatives, all of which are well and reliably characterizedin terms of environmental and economic performance and potential social impact;capability to make the chosen technology fully operational, so that it fulfils its potential, andmeets the identified needs, without detrimental side effects. Certainty: A lack of certainty, and the consequential high levels of risk, both real and perceived, arerecognized as major impediments to the successful technology transfer. Removing barriers totechnology transfer often translates into increased certainty, and decreased risks, for the keystakeholders such as the developers, suppliers, financiers, insurers, recipients and regulators.One example is ensuring access to sufficient, verified information.  Macroeconomic conditions that favour technology transfer include those which will deliverlow inflation, stable and realistic exchange and interest rates, pricing that reflects the truecosts of material, energy, labour and other inputs, deregulation, free movement of capital,operation of competitive markets, open trade policies and transparent foreign investmentpolicies. Communication : The technology transfer chain is often long, in terms of both distance and time. Effectivecommunication is thus another essential ingredient in the recipe for successful technologytransfer. Efficient and effective two-way communication and cooperation between keystakeholders will do much to remove barriers. Information management systems, knowledgemanagement tools and formal and informal networks can all make important contributions.Effective communication is a requisite to harmonizing the contributions to the processes of technology transfer being made by diverse players. Capacity:   Enhancing the transfer of technologies that support sustainable development is largely aboutcreating favourable circumstances for technology transfer  –  ensuring all stakeholders havethe ability to fulfil their roles and meet their responsibilities, expeditiously. Generallyspeaking, government is the principal player in creating an enabling environment fortechnology transfer, but financial and insurance institutions and international organizationscan also be influential.Issues as lack of access to appropriate sources of capital, high or uncertain inflation orinterest rates, subsidised prices for material and energy inputs, high import duties, uncertainstability of tax and tariff policies; investment risk, loss of rights to intellectual propertyshould be addressed. Commitment: Key actions that will foster technology transfer include:    Needs assessments, including identification of shortcomings in the enablingenvironment, with relevant organizations and agencies helping to address these    Evaluation and strengthening of policies that influence the enabling environment    Greater communication and interaction between key parts of government    Intra- and inter-governmental coordination, cooperation and assistance    Protection of intellectual property rights and legal contracts    Political support for programmes and institutions that foster technology transfer    Delineation of the roles of the private and public sectors in both developed anddeveloping countries    Economic incentives targeting industries that have the potential to make critical andmajor contributions to technology transfer    Ensuring that technology transfer initiatives are compatible with national sustainabledevelopment agendas ƒ      6P
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