The Rock Cycle

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THE ROCK CYCLE -shows relationship between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock. -rocks are continually formed, changed, destroyed and reconstituted during the rock cycle: Formed/modified by endogenic forces (internal) Destroyed by weather and climate (e ogenic) !econstituted by deposition of sediments GEOTECTONIC formation, arrangement, structure of the rocks in the crust. !ocks result from distortion of the crust due to endogenic forces. PLUTONIC ROCKS -intrusi#e (granite) crystalli$ed
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  THE ROCK CYCLE -shows relationship between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock. -rocks are continually formed, changed, destroyed and reconstituted during the rock cycle: Formed/modified by endogenic forces (internal) Destroyed by weather and climate (eogenic) !econstituted by deposition of sediments GEOTECTONIC   formation, arrangement, structure of the rocks in the crust. !ocks result from distortion of the crust due to endogenic forces. PLUTONIC ROCKS  -intrusi#e (granite) crystalli$ed magma. VOLCANIC ROCKS  -etrusi#e (basalt) %olidified la#a. Rocks are formed when : &agma rises, cools, solidifies forms igneous rock: - magma reaches surface #olcanic/etrusi#e eg. 'asalt - magma cools within the crust plutonic/intrusi#e eg. ranite Rocks are modfed d!e o : reat heat, pressure metamorphic rock. Rocks are des ro#ed when : Denudation occurs, weathering, erosion smaller rock pieces  sediments - sediments transported and deposited by water, ice, air (agents of erosion) Rocks are recons  ! ed when : compressed sediments solid rock (sedimentary rock) - deposited in layers ( strata) $AG$A  forms by subducted rock layers melting into the mantle. LITHI%ICATION   sediments compact and turn into solid rock (sedimentary rock) eg. *oose sand sandstone. CHARACTERISTICS O% ROCKS I&neo!s   formed when magma cooled and solidified +g. ranite, basalt, pyroclasts and la#a Sedmen ar#   compressed remains/sediments of sea creatures/plants/animals/ fragments of rocks. +g. *imestone, %andstone, coal and shale $e amor'hc   changed sedimentary/igneous rocks due to great heat/pressure or both +g. &arble, uart$ite, schist, slate  IGNEOUS ROCK  -formed from solidified magma-plutonic/intrusi#e(granite) -#olcanic/etrusi#e(basalt) -contains crystals - large crystals  slow cooldown - granite - small crystals  fast cooldown basalt GRANITE %OR$ATION -coarse grained igneous rock -magma cooled deep within the crust-contains: minerals of feldspar, uart$, mica. -color: white, grey, pink, black -large crystals-formed during aledonian fold mountain building period. -00 mil. years ago. -used for: kitchen worktops, fireplaces1 building material-found in: 2icklow &ountains, &ourne &ountains, o. Down. (ASALT %OR$ATION) -fine/medium grained igneous rock -color: black/dark grey-most common etrusi#e rock in 3! -uickly cooled la#a-small crystals-found on the 4ntrim-Derry 5lateau (iant6s auseway) cooled, contracted la#a formed heagonal columns SE*I$ENTARY ROCK  -formed o#er millions of years-composed of: remains of animals/plants compacted-sandstone and limestone-layers called strata separated by bedding planes-bedding planes hori$ontal cracks-7oints #ertical cracks-two types: organic/inorganic sedimentary rock. ORGANIC SE*I$ENTARY ROCK formed from the remains of animal and plant life. INORGANIC SE*I$ENTARY ROCK formed from the broken down remains of pre-eisting rock. PER$EA(LE  means that water can pass through. LI$ESTONE) or&anc sedmen ar# rock  -most common type in 3! -the 'urren, o.lare -made up of: cemented compress remains of sea creatures-formed o#er millions of years-present day limestone formed o#er 800 mil. years ago -formed during carboniferous period-colors: grayish white/black/dark grey-easily permeable and weathered-fossils often found (temperature and pressure of formation does not destroy them)  SAN*STONE) nor&anc sedmen ar# rock  -coarse rock -color: brown/red-most common type found in 3!: old red sandstone (iron oide present)-formed appro. 00 mil. years ago (3! desert type climate) -aledonian fold mountains weathered and eroded sediments carried by ri#ers and deposited in shallow seas/lakes-also formed from deposits of sediments in ri#er channels/deltas/floodplains eg. omeragh &ountains, o. 2aterford, &acgillycuddy6s !eeks, o. 9erry. $ETA$ORPHIC ROCK -formed by changing the appearance/teture/chemical composition of sedimentary/igneous rock due to great heat(magma) or pressure(folding)-two types: . ;hermal metamorphism (heat alone) <. !egional metamorphism (great heat and pressure o#er a large area) +g. *imestone turning to marble-aledonian fold mountain building period colliding plates of +urasia and 4merica. +=4&5*+%-*imestone to &arble onnemara, o. alway-%andstone to uat$it reat %ugarloaf &ountain, o. 2icklow roagh 5atrick, o. &ayo $AR(LE -hard crystalline rock -colour: green(onnemara), red(ork), pure white marble(!athlin 3sland, 4ntrim, arrara 3raly) -formed by heat and pressure on limestone-impure marble is not pure white eg. 3ron oides, silt, sand, clay.-can be cut, polished and used for: kitchen worktops, fireplaces, ornaments, gra#estones +UART,ITE -sandstone changed due to great heat and pressure-spaces in composition were filled with silica and then compressed-light colored rock -often white in color -found on peaks of mountains: roagh 5atrick, o. &ayo 1 %ugar *oaf &ountain, o. 2icklow  THE NORTH A$ERICAN CONTINENT ) ac -e and ra.n& '.a e mar&ns ACTIVE PLATE $ARGIN/ occurs where oceanic plate subducts under continental plate E&0  2est coast of >orth 4merica 5acific 5late subducts under the >orth 4merican 5late / faulting, mountain building, #olcanoes and earthuake acti#ity occur. / america6s newest igneous and metamorphic rock forms this way TRAILING PLATE $ARGINS/ occurs in the absence of earthuake or #olcanic acti#ity or fold mountain formation / sedimentary rocks such as limestone and sandstone form here / sediments eroded from mountains transported by ri#ers deposited into seas (limestone/sandstone) HU$AN INTERACTION 1ITH THE ROCK CYCLE +UARRYING -important resources: energy and building materials-rock based building materials: stone, gra#el and sand +g. ranite (igneous rock) *imestone (%edimentary rock) &arble (&etamorphic rock) 2?4; 3% @4!!A3>B -the remo#al of rock from large pits on the +arth6s surface-o#er 00 acti#e pits and uarries in 3! solid rock etracted-raw materials for houses, roads, pa#ing and floors-00 mill. ;ons per annum up to <00&+;?CD% CF @4!!A3>.5lug and feather -holes drilled into the rock -steel wedges/rods inserted in rock to split it-etracting large pieces used for floor co#ering<.+plosi#e-used to etract large and smaller pieces of rock -for chipping for roads/fertili$ing land8.hanneling-machinery is used to cut large slices of rock -uarrying marble+g. 0,000 years ago (last ice age 3!) , melting of glaciers rich deposits of rock midland 3! %and/ ra#els esker ridges.+iscir !iada- Dublin- alway (Dublin, &eath, 9ildare, 2estmeath, Cffaly, !oscommon, alway)53; loose sand/gra#el dug directly out of ground@4!!A- bedrock blasted then processed+%9+!% long ridges of stratified sand/gra#el (+iscir !iada)
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