... -/~- ~~~ - THE SPANISH SOURCES OF "LE DIABLE BOITEUX" Lella Virginia Beatrice Watson

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' ~ j ' (, 0\ - -1 ) THE SPANSH SOURCES OF LE DABLE BOTEUX ... by Lella Virginia Beatrice Watson A thesis submitted to the Department of Romance Languages and the Faculty of the Graduate School in partial
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' ~ j ' (, 0\ - -1 ) THE SPANSH SOURCES OF LE DABLE BOTEUX ... by Lella Virginia Beatrice Watson A thesis submitted to the Department of Romance Languages and the Faculty of the Graduate School in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master's Degree. May 15, ~- Department of ~ ~ :;!~ ~~~ - NTRODUCTON.;. PART A: Le Sage's indebtedness to Luis vt1ez de Guevara PART B: Le Sage's indebtedness to Francisco Santos..._ PART C: La Sage's indebtedness to Francisco de Rojas. CONCLUSON., a '. Brunetiere, Ferdinand. BBLOGRAPHY Etudes Qritiques sur l'histoire de rla Litt6ature franyaise. Paris, Claretie, Leo. Essai sur Lesage. Par1~, 1890_.. Diccionario Enciclopedico Hispano-Americano. Manta ner:.. y Simon. Barcelona, Dou mi c, E. e ne:. NauvellecEdition, Histoire de la Litterature fran9a1se ~arie, Encyclopaedia Britannica. Eleventh Edition, '- ' Faguet,. Emile. Dix-hui tie me Siecle Etude$ li tteraires.. ~Paris, Fitzmaurice~Kelly, Jaime. Historia de la Literatura espariola.desde los orfgenes h~sta el ano Madrid. ~~Cf . Lanson, Gustave. Histoire de.la Li tt~ature ~Paris, l903.. ) francaise. ). Le.Sage, Al~iff~Rene. le Diable boiteux. ~vres de Le Sage. Paris, MDCCCXXlo \. Lintilhac, Eugeneo Lesage. Paris, L. Petit de r Julleville. Hd.stoire de la Langue et de la.litt~rature franqaise des Origines ~ Paris~ , Morel-Fatio, A. Etudes sur L'Espagne. Paris, 1895. b Mo~illot, Paul. Le Roman en France dep~is +610 jusqu'a nos jours. Paris. Ocios de espanole s. emigrlados o +omo 3. Enero, Febrero, Marze,.Abril, Mayo y Junie, Landres. Puibusque, Adolphe de. Hist~ire.Comparle des Litt~ratures espagnole et fran9aise. Paris~ Rojas, Francisco de. Obligados y Ofendidos, y Garron de \ Salamanca. Biblioteca de Autores Espanoles. Edite~ by.m. Rivadoneyr~. Madri~, 1e71~.. ' Santos, Francisco. Dta y Neche de Madrid. Bibli9teca de Autores Espanoles. Edited,by M., Rivadeneyr~. Madrid, Ticknor, George, History of $panish Lit~rature. Boston, Sixth edition. Velez de Gl1eva:ra, Luis. El.,c;1i ablo~c6 1 jue'l~o ~::;. Biblioteca. de'.,autores Espan9les. Edited by M. Rivadeneyra. Madrid, ~ TABLE OF corrrents -- ntroduction page 1. Question or 11 Gil Blas and originality of Le Sage.. l 2. Dedication of the ndiable boiteux to Guevara- i 3. Dive~gence of critical opinion ~.l 4. Purpose of the thesis ~ 2 Part A ndebtedness to the Diablo Cojuelo 1. Framework and title 3 2. 'Points of similarity and difference in first chapters of the Diablo cojuelo«and the Diable boiteux» ~ 3. The style of the t wo wri tars 4-4. Second chapter of the Diable boiteux?:orie;inality 5 5. Third chapter of tne Diable boiteux : opinion of M. Lintilhac, and stories borrowed 6 6. Chapter nine: Use made of the casa de los locos~ 7 7. Chapter ten: dea sug[ested by the casa de.los locos 8 M. Lintilhac's opinion justified ~ ~ 9 found 9. Fourteenth chapter: Sourcel'in the fourth tranco of the Diablo Bojuelo . 9 Views of.le SaBe upon subject of comedies and tragedies.9 9. Other borrowinrs from the ttdiablo cojuelo . lo 2-a Part B ndebtedness to Dia y Noche de Madrid 1. Attitude of critics ~ Verses from discurso fifteen Suggestion of prison scene ~ l~ 4. Story of Patrice ~~... 1~. 5. Story of the burning lnn ~~ ~ ~ ~!~19. Part. C. ndebtedness to Francisco de Rojas's 11 0bligados y Ofendidos, y Gorron de Salamanca 1.' Love affairs of the Count of Belflor,:. space giv_en_.b.y., Le Sage Moral tone of stqry Opinion of M. Claretie as to -sourca.. ~ 2Q Similarity of denouement to that of No hay amigo ; ~ :' t i para amigo.... n 20 page Preservation of.spanish point of view ~ 28 Purpose of Le Sage in using the play Conclusion Results obtained from the consideration of Spanish sources, l. Chapters for which no Spanish source has been. found 2~ 3-a :page 2. Summary of debt to Guevara Francisco Summary of debt to :,...,,,.~ Santos Summary of debt to Francisco de Rojas Originality in matter of presentation 30 SPu~SH SOURCES OF LE DABLE BOTEuX ntroduction Perhaps no other literary genius has so often had his originality questioned and his so generally made a matter of Le Sage. The long and bitter indebtedness to foreign sources. speculation as has Alain-Rene. (1) struggle over Gil Blasn has ended and critics are at last fairly well satisfied that the book belongs to Le Sage. Attention can now be turned to his!'..,. second greatest bool , the sources of which up to. the present.. ;. time have remained.practically undetermined. )... ' Whether or not Le~Sage acknowledges too great a debt to f Spain by dedicating his Di.able boi teux to. Luis V~lez de (2) Guevara, on the ground that he owes to Guevara the idea and the title, is a mooted question. He himself in his preface to the edition of 1726 foreshadows a divergence.of critical opinion. n addressing Guevara, he says: J' ai pasue' ~ Paris pour votre copiste, et je n'ai 6t6 lou' qu'en second~ l est.. \ vrai) en recompense,. qu' a Madrid la copie a ete. t:radui te en espagnol et qu'elle yest devenue un original!u Almost two centuries later this sentiment of Paris has. {3{ been reiterated by so great a scholar as Ferdinand Brunetiere, 2 who in his Le Saee, (Etudes Oritiq\les) dismisses the Diable boi teux with Voil~ 'le Diable boi temc,' dont la cornposi ti on \ '... (4). n' a encore coute a Le Sage que la peine de 1' emprunter. . (5). On the other hand, Adolphe de Puibusque makes the bold statement, L'imitation de Le Sage est nettement 11bre, et. m~l~e de tant d'inventions francaises 1 qu'on. peut la considtrer.. comme une seconde creation. This same position 1s taken by ( 6) the ttencyclopaedia Bri tannica 0 : Even the plan of the Spanish ) original is entirely discarded a:nd the incidents, the episodas 1 the style are as ind~pendent as if such a book as the 'Diablo cojuelo' had never existed. One or the other of these widely separated notions appears in. almost every article that hasefbeen written on Le Sage from his own time down to the critical considerations of the subject by rko Claretie and Eugene Lintilhac. Altha 'both M. Claretie and M. Lintil~ac have indicated the Spanish sources of the n Di able: boi teux, they have not treated _the.question in any. ' great detail and the reader is left somewhat in doubt.as to the nature and extentrof Le Sage's indebtedness to Spain. t is possible by some investigation of the matter to free Le!-3age from the charge of wholesale translation and at the same time to render to Guevara, Santos and others the tribute due them. } 3 PART A Le Sage settles the question of the source of the frame-. \. work of his novel by saying; n j' ai d~ja ae'clare,. et je declare: encore publiquement, que votre,.diablo-cojuelo' m' en a fourni (7~ le titre et l' i dee. Even the be st authorities do no t he s_i tat.~ to speak of the first chapter as an exact translation from the (8) Spanish. But some trif11ng variation in incident is to be noted even here. Le Sage finds more inspiration in the guitarr of an October midnight than in the deserted prado of a Suly evening. He chides Guevara s lack of compassion by rnercif.ull yr reducing the little lame devil's term.of imprisonment from two years to six months~ The French adventurer is not so ready, either, to aid the mys~erious forces of the underworld as the rash Spanish student. Zambullo's worldly wisdom which questions Asmode'e's promises ~nd.is'convinced only by the.. mo~t.te~pting offers~is French. Guevara's stude~t impetpou3ly brealcs tha bottle without losing a moment in coming to terms. The 1.ronderful satin cloak which pictures all the events caused in the world through the influence of Asmodee is original and cleverly prepares for the numerous scenes that follow. These changes are not mechanical devices employed for the effect of originality, for t~e originality of Le Sage is a matter of spirit and poin~ of view rather than invention of ' i 4 of incident. Even in those incidents which are largely ~opied, no hint of Guevara s style is to_be found. Le Sage avoids. '. Guevara s method of description by accumulation. He tells the story in his own :fresh_, ~himsical way. One sentence from this first.chapter affords some nd tion o:r the striking differe.nces in the treatment of the subject. Guevara's rapid, kaleido- scopic view of Zambullo may be compared with Le Sage's treatment: ~... don Cleofas Leandro Perez -?Z- don Cleophas Leandro. Zambullo,.hidalgo a cuatro Vientos, caballero huracan, y encrucijada de appellidos, galan de novi~iado, y estudiante de profesion, embarazado con un broqual y una cortador_a, espada, aprendia a gato por el caballete de un t.ejado,. huyendo de la juaticia,... que le venia a los alcances por un estrupo.qua no habia comido ni be,bldo, que en el plei t o de acreedores d~- una noble doncella al uso estaba Perez Zambullo, 6colier d 1 Alcala, sortit brusquement par une lucarne d'une maison oti le fils indiscret de la dlesse de Cyth~re l'avoit fa1t entrer. l t~choit de conserver sa vie et son honneur, nk. \ ~-r 1 ~::f\for9ant d' echapper a trois ou quatre spadassins '. qui le sui v,oient de pres po.µr le tuer, ou pourl lui faire 6'pouser par force une dame avec laquelle ils ven.oient (9) de le surprendre. ! 5...- graduado e.n el lugar veintido- ~~ seno, pretendiendo que el. pobre licenciado escotase solo ~ lo qua tantos habian meren- (10) dado. Le Sage dignifies the young.man. whom Guevara makes ridiculous encumbered with.his shield and sword, by adding~ nquoique seul ~ontre eu~, il s ' et,, cit defendu vaillamment, et il n ' avott. pri s la,~uite t. ~ que parce.qu ils lui avoient enleve son epee dans ~ le combat. Thus at the.outset Le Sage's sympathetic and indulge11t. attitude toward his hero is shown. Le Sage inserts a second chapter, practically his own, in which he foreshadows the tragic end of the boiteux. The delightful and not altogether unphilosophical. conversation between don Cleophasfand Asmo~6e upon the latter's personal appearance was not. written by a Spanish pen. Le Sage has not made use of Guevara's clever explanation of.asmode'c's lameness His touch at this ~oint is altogether original. t would seem that he has forgotten Madrid. M. Lintilhac'a exclamation, Que de fois l'auteur nous parle expresge'ment des Fran9u1s et '. \.. ( 11) nous ramene a Paris sans crier gare!n is justified. With the third chap:f:,er.le Sage returns to his model. has used in this place only a few of the twenty-eight stories He 6 round in the second tranco of Diable cojuelo.» M. Lintilhac thinks seven: tl ne doi t & 1 1 irn(gal auteur du 'Dlablo c6jue10 que deux chapitres et demi sur vingt et un, soit, tout compte fait, neuf historiettes et le cadre. Or ce qui est ' remarquable, c'est que eept de ces historiettes sont dans le chapitre 3 et qua les deux autres occupant juste si~ lignes (12) dans le reste du livre. - 'J;hese seven ar e easily re coe;nized. The account of the guilty Dona Fabula is merely a polir.hed translation. The 9,lchemist, the apothecary,. the physician, the robbers, appear. in Le Sage with but slight change of costume. The aged lover who removes his eye. moustache, wig, arm, and leg upon ret.irlnu\,... is somewhat less afflicted in the Spanish story. The seventh character from Guevara is a marquis who is seen entering a. l' gir s room. Le Sage, preferring to leave something to his reader's imagination, suspends the marquis on the silken ladder scorning Guevara s prophesy that he will be overtaken by the t ale al de de ronda. . Evidently M. Lintilhac Hid not consider Le Sage's miser to have been who starves his mulesc'sugrested by the lines of Guevara: Y al mismo tiempo advierte como a la puerta de aquel rico avariento echan un niro, que por partes de su padre puede pretender la.. beca del Antecristo, y el, en grado de apelacion, da con el en \ 7... casa de un senor que vive junta a la suya, que tiene talle de comrselo antes que criarlo, porque ha dias que su despensa espera el domingo de casi racion. The differences injsty.le and treatment noticed in the first chapter reappear here. For the most part Le Sage has written more leisurely than Guevara. His sensibil1ty and lively fancy so animate his borrowed anecdotes lthat they appear as fresh as the twenty that are wholly his own. however, has neglected one or two of Guevara's good stories. The foolish couple who invested their all in a coach were surely not typical of Madrid alone. descendants are not all Spanish! At least, their Chapters four, five, seven, and eight show marked Spanish influence. They are not, however, from the Diablo Cojuelo, but from other well known writerstand will be considered in parts B and c. He, n chapter nine Le Sage, recognizing the possibilities in the casa de los locos, n book. again makes use of Guevara's?erhaps no other portion of his work-so well exnibits the inherent differences in the two writers. Guevara would content his curious public by handing out a mere catalog of the patients confined in the institution. The Frenchman better 8 understands human nature. L~ Sage, on the other hand, permits visitors to ~ee the inmat.es, to pause before each cell, to ponder the unhappy chance of its occupant and, in some cases, to learn a family history. Le Sage has taken over three of Guevara s incurables. The gramrra rian \7hoJ in the original 1 lost his reason hunting for the, gerund of tho Greek verb is now asserting the 9»istence of the upaulo post futurum. The collegian who with Gucva.1,a amused himself trying on mitres is now happy as bishop of Toledo Spanish maiden no longer sits, like Narcissus, on the curb- stone of a well gazing at her mirrored beauty, but has become an aged grandmother, quite unaware of the loss of her charms 0 Not satisfied with having made of the asylum a rather long tale, the author pushes the idea farther and writes a clever tenth cpapter, dont la matiere est ine'puisable,... on the.lunatics outside the ucasa de los locos, this time not Spanish, bitt French. The chapter is made up of short, brilliant sketches which probably meant more to contemporaries than to later reader~. Th~re is an account of a worn~~ of sixty, who upon herjtmslbnd's death;fancies she needs the protection of a convent, and a reappearance of Moli~~e's B'lise who imagines all men in love with her. The man whose hobby is to appear influential, the rich canon who skimps in order to invest his his all in furniture, jewels, and pictures, hoping'!., The 1! 9 by this means to make a creat show in his inventory,. and. the spend th.rift bachelor of good family who marries his laundress, were probably known to Le Sage. This chapter more than any othe r, perhaps, furnished Lintilhac. ground for writing,, ' le?iable \ boiteux' allait proceder bienplus_ de La 1=3ruyere que de (13) Guevara. n The inspiration of the fourteenth chapter was due to tha fourth tranco (f;f th~ '' Dia.blo cojualo. The wild poet who becomes so aroused in writing his comedy of uburning Troy'~. that he alarms the guests of the hotel by crying 11 F1re 0 is th~ writer of tragedies in Le Sage. Troya._abrasadan becom.es La Mort de Patrocle. 0 The account occupies a chapter in either boo1 , al tho Le ~age has in no way translated Guevara~ Priam,. Agame.mnon, Achilles and all the rest pose tragically, but the French tragic poet is reinforced by a comic one who disputes '. ) with him the relative merits of co_medies and tragedies. Le Sage leaves but little doubt as to l1is own views on the subject As thoitgh the. comic writer ho.d not already proved his point., the bottle imp adds, n je dis qu'il n'eat pas plus facil9 de. 1'. f t i 1 1 d 1\ composer une p ece comique qu une rag que; car s a. ern ere ~toi t plus difficile qua 1' autre, il faudroi t conclure de ld qu'un faiseur de trag~diea seroit phs capable de faire une comedie que le meilleur. auteur comique; ce qui ne s'accorderoit (14) pas avec l'experience.u 10 Dona Thornana, who appears in chapter one and again in chapter six, is a creation of the ndiablo cojuelo. As in the Spanish book, she is the mistress of Zambullo, but Le t-lage allows her little place in the student's life, and with her arr 1 est the hero's heart is quite f~ee affair with Seraphine. for his romantic Guevara does not so) ruthlessly debase. the woman and elevate the man. Dona Thomas~ is.. not totally foreotten, as with Le Sage, but reappears wi~h in the final scene. her soldier After chapter fourteen no trace of Guev -ra is to.be found ' in the oiable boi teux. '' PART B Le S~ge has l~ot by any means finis 0 hed with\!:. pain. n the -' n ~mprunte~. pr.. eface mentioned above he adrni ts that he :.ha3'.\,des vars et q~elques images de Francisco Santos, aute~1r du l\i vre inti tule' ( 15) :.. 'Dia y Noche de Madrid.' Critics seem to have ~eglected altogether the investigation of these borrowings.\ Some stril{ing factr! make.le. Sage's indebtedness to Frartcisco: Santos rather worthy of note. n the first place, Santosf is wholly unlilrn Guevara. 111 s u Dia y Neche n is a book of sermons and would seem unpromi sine to the stor y hunter. :Ere- Sa ~e-, -however t. i makes surprisingly eood une of the. material in Sant~s. Besides 11. the verses from discurso fifteen of udia y Noche appearing in the tenth chapter of ndiable boi teux, Le Sage -:adopts::. the. suggestion of the prison scene in discurso seven for his seventh chapter. He has not taken much more from Santos than the bare outline of the scene. The prisoners are his own with the.exception of Guevara's marquis seen before, in the third chapter of the ndiable boiteux 11 on the silken latter, arrested at last by the alcalde de ronda.n Santos describes the prisoners as they appear to the visitors, whi-~e Le Sage's interest is wholly in the.events whic~ have bpought these unfortunate people into their present plight. Some of the differences in treatment-may be seen in the following extracts from ~'Dia y Nochen and le ~iable bo.iteux 11 : \ ~. ~ As{ que dentro estuvo ~e- Premierement, 11 y a Onofre, permi tid que la admi~ racion usase sus extremos, no tando en tan hermoso edificio tanta comodi~ad y desahogo para los presos, cuando cerca de s{. vi.a un hombre qua batallando estaba con otro;.._ quejabase el uno amargamente de su corta -.. \ dans cette _grande chambre a droite qu~tre hommes couches dans ces deux ~auvais lits; ;. 1 1 un est un cabaretier accuse -. d' avoir empoisonne un etranger' qui creva l'autz;e jour dans sa taverna. On,pretend que la qualite du vin.a fait mourir le a6runt;: l'h~te 12 posible que usted no me haya hecho mas favor, sabiendo que hoy se ha de ver mi pleito, en haber e~aminado aquel testigo,.. que importaba mucho a mi negoc io? A lo que el otro repondi6: A ml no me han dado blanca alguna,y no viendo luz,. yo no ac1erto a esdribir 1 aunque fuera para mi padre. Aqu{ conocio ~nofre q~e el uno era pres6~ y el otro era es- cribano. Prosigui y:diciendo: Usted busque dinero, y tendra buen pleito. iqu~ bueno le. ; he de t.ener, r-espondio el preso, si se.ha de ver hoy sin falta, y con su descuido de usted, que se yo lo qua.,,._ saldra? Gran desdicha es el ser pobre un hombre, y no hallar caridad en los que trata. r.. -~spidiose el escribano, porque * soutient quo c'est la quantit~: et il sera cru en. justice; car l'etraneer etoit Allemand. Eh! qui a raison du cabaretier ou de ses accusateurs? dit.don Cleophas. La chose est problematique, repondit le Diable. l est bien vral que le vin etoit frelate; mais, ma foi,: le seigneur allemand en a tant bu, que les juges peuvent en conscience re-,,. \ ' mettre en lib.erte le caba- retier.,. ttle second prisonnier est un assas..si~e ~rofession, un ' l'j.\'. de ces scelerats qu' on appeii~! 'valientes,' et~qui,.pour quatre'au cinq pistoles, A pretent obligeamment leur ministt.er~ tous Ceux qui veule'nt faire cet-'~.e cttpense 13 le llamo otro preso., quedando.. este primero mas triste que la noche. ;Es posible, decia. Onofre, que seamos tan males los hombres, que no viendo el. interes primero, no nos movamos pa
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