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Toxic Wastes and Race at Twenty 1987—2007 A Report Prepared for the United Church of Christ Justice & Witness Ministries $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $$ $$ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $$ $$$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $$ $ $$ $ $ $ $$$$ $ $ $ $$ $$ $$ $$$ $$ $$ $$ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $$ $$ $ $$ $ $$$ $ $ $$$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $$$ $ $$ $$ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $$ $ $$ $$ $ $$ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $
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   Justice & Witness Ministries: Rev. M. Linda JaramilloExecutive MinisterDr. Carlos J. Correa BernierMinister for Environmental Justice Principal Authors: Robert D. Bullard, Ph.D.Paul Mohai, Ph.D.Robin Saha, Ph.D.Beverly Wright, Ph.D. United Church of Christ© March 2007 Toxic Wastes and Race at Twenty1987—2007 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     HazradousWasteFacilityLocation          $      A Report Prepared for theUnited Church of ChristJustice & Witness Ministries ▲ Hazardous Waste Facility Location   God is Still Speaking,  ii   Toxic Wastes and Race at Twent : 1987-2007 ABOUT THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRISTJUSTICE & WITNESS MINISTRIES   Justice and Witness Ministries of the United Church of Christ embraces God’s transforming mission to do justice, seek peace, and build community. Therefore, in response to the call of Christ, we speak and actprophetically through public witness, policy advocacy, issue education, and grassroots empowerment tobuild a more just, compassionate and inclusive world.Justice and Witness Ministries, one of four Covenanted Ministries in the United Church of Christ, helpslocal congregations and all settings of the church respond to God’s commandments to do justice, seekpeace and effect change for a better world. The work of Justice and Witness Ministries is guided by thepronouncements and resolutions approved by the United Church of Christ.JWM has a long history of working to confront and dismantle racism. JWM’s work serves as a catalyst for social transformation, particularly in the ushering in of a fully integrated multiracial, multicultural world – aworld where diversity becomes the focal point of communal celebration. Our work for criminal and juvenile justice reform, toward the abolishment of capital punishment, and in support of political prisoners is aimedto remove the barriers that divide people, that they may be liberated to live as one.JWM uses a variety of strategies to undertake justice advocacy. These strategies include mobilizingpeople to participate in public life so as to impact social policy. Responding to legislative issues, JWM  positively impacts the areas of global economy, public education, workers rights, health care, economic development, and the environment.  Working as individuals, congregations, Associations, Conferences and national covenanted ministries,the UCC is engaged in diverse ministries of compassion, advocacy and reconciliation. We seek to be achurch that is multiracial, multicultural, open and affirming, accessible to all.We embrace God’s transforming mission to do justice, seek peace, and build community. In response toChrist’s call, we prophetically speak truth to power and act through public witness in over twenty social justice advocacy areas. Jesus calls us to be a more inclusive church and society.  Justice and Witness Ministries  United Church of Christ700 Prospect Ave.Cleveland, OH 44115216-736-3704 jwm@ucc.orgCopyright © March 2007. The United Church of Christ. All rights reserved.  iii   Toxic Wastes and Race at Twent : 1987-2007 ABOUT THE AUTHORS Robert D. Bullard is the Ware Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Director of the EnvironmentalJustice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University. He is the author of thirteen books that addresssustainable development, environmental racism, urban land use, industrial facility siting, communityreinvestment, housing, transportation and smart growth. His book, Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class and Environmental Quality  (Westview Press, 2000), is a standard text in the environmental justice field. Hismost recent books include Just Sustainabilities: Development in an Unequal World  (Earthscan/MIT Press,2003), Highway Robbery: Transportation Racism and New Routes to Equity  (South End Press, 2004),  The Quest for Environmental Justice: Human Rights and the Politics of Pollution (Sierra Club Books,2005), Growing Smarter: Achieving Livable Communities, Environmental Justice and Regional Equity   (MIT Press, 2007) and The Black Metropolis in the Twenty-First Century: Race, Power and the Politics of Place (Rowman & Littlefield, forthcoming May 2007).  Paul Mohai  is Professor in the School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He was an early and major contributor to the growing body of quantitative research examiningthe disproportionate environmental burdens in low-income and people of color communities. A significantoutcome of this early research was the organization of the historic 1990 “Michigan Conference on Raceand the Incidence of Environmental Hazards” with colleague Dr. Bunyan Bryant. Dr. Mohai also has beena major contributor to research examining the environmental attitudes of African Americans and their influence on the environmental movement. His current research involves national-level studies examiningcause and effect relationships in the distribution of environmental hazards by race and class, includingexamining the role environmental factors play in accounting for racial and socioeconomic disparities inhealth. He is the author of numerous articles on the subject of race and the environment.  Robin Saha  is Assistant Professor of Environmental Studies at the University of Montana and affiliatedfaculty with its School of Public and Community Health Sciences. He is among the leading scholarsconducting quantitative studies of environmental inequality using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).His articles appear in leading social science journals including Demography  and Social Problems. Histeaching and research focuses on the intersection of environmental justice, health and policy with anemphasis on community engagement and empowerment. He is committed to providing assistance tocontaminated communities and works actively on tribal environmental issues. One of his currentcommunity-based research projects focuses on substandard housing and environmental health onMontana Indian reservations. He also consults on environmental justice legal cases and conductsenvironmental justice analyses for a wide variety of nonprofit advocacy organizations.  Beverly Wright  is a sociologist and the founding director of the Deep South Center for EnvironmentalJustice (DSCEJ) at Dillard University (formerly at Xavier University of Louisiana) in New Orleans. She is aleading scholar, advocate and activist in the environmental justice arena. She served on the U.S.Commission of Civil Rights for the state of Louisiana and on the city of New Orleans' Select Committeefor the Sewerage and Water Board. She is co-chair of the National Black Environmental Justice Networkand the Environmental Justice Climate Change (EJCC) Initiative. She is the co-author of  In the Wake of the Storm: Environment, Disaster and Race after Katrina (Russell Sage Foundation, May 2006). She is anative of New Orleans and a survivor of Hurricane Katrina.  iv   Toxic Wastes and Race at Twent : 1987-2007 CONTENTS   List of Tables, Figures, and Appendices ................................................................................................. V Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................................ VIForeword ............................................................................................................................................. VIIPreface ............................................................................................................................................... VIIIExecutive Summary ............................................................................................................................... XIntroduction ........................................................................................................................................... 1Chapter 1 .............................................................................................................................................. 7Environmental Justice in the Twenty-First CenturyChapter 2 ............................................................................................................................................ 16Environmental Justice Timeline/Milestones 1987-2007Chapter 3 ............................................................................................................................................ 38Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in the Distribution of Environmental Hazards: Assessing the Evidence Twenty Yearsafter  Toxic Wastes and Race  Chapter 4 ............................................................................................................................................ 49 A Current Appraisal of Toxic Wastes and Race in the UnitedStates - 2007Chapter 5 ............................................................................................................................................ 84Impact of  Toxic Wastes and Race on the EJ Movement:Speaking for OurselvesChapter 6 .......................................................................................................................................... 124Wrong Complexion for Protection: Will the “Mother of All ToxicCleanups” in New Orleans Be Fair?Chapter 7 .......................................................................................................................................... 134The “Poster Child” for Environmental Racism in 2007: Dickson,TennesseeChapter 8 .......................................................................................................................................... 152Conclusions and Recommendations
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