Why Do White Americans Support the Death Penalty?

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Why Do White Americans Support the Death Penalty? Joe Soss American University Laura Langbein American University Alan R. Metelko American University This article explores the roots of white support for capital punishment in the United States. Our analysis addresses individual-level and contextual factors, paying particular attention to how racial attitudes and racial composition influence white support for capital punishment. Our findings suggest that white support hinges on a range of attitud
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  Why Do White Americans Support the Death Penalty? Joe Soss American University Laura Langbein American University Alan R. Metelko American University This article explores the roots of white support for capital punishment in the United States. Our analy-sis addresses individual-level and contextual factors, paying particular attention to how racial atti-tudes and racial composition influence white support for capital punishment. Our findings suggestthat white support hinges on a range of attitudes wider than prior research has indicated, includingsocial and governmental trust and individualist and authoritarian values. Extending individual-levelanalyses, we also find that white responses to capital punishment are sensitive to local context. Perhapsmost important, our results clarify the impact of race in two ways. First, racial prejudice emerges hereas a comparatively strong predictor of white support for the death penalty. Second, black residential proximity functions to polarize white opinion along lines of racial attitude. As the black percentageof county residents rises, so too does the impact of racial prejudice on white support for capital punishment. S tates, as Max Weber famously observed, are distinguished in part by their claim to a legitimate monopoly over the use of violence within a given territory(Gerth and Mills 1946, 78). This claim is nowhere more evident, or controver-sial, than when the state kills an individual it has convicted of a capital crime(Sarat 2001). In a majority of countries, laws permit the state to impose lifelongincarceration, but withhold the authority to take life. At present 109 countriesreject the death penalty in law or practice; 86 retain and use the death penalty, but most do not do so with great regularity (AI 2001). No country in WesternEurope currently practices capital punishment; and in 1999, the U.N. Commis-sion on Human Rights called for a worldwide moratorium on executions (Dieter 1999). Between 1990 and 2001, over 30 countries abolished this mode of pun- THE JOURNALOF POLITICS, Vol. 65, No. 2, May 2003, Pp. 397–421 © 2003 Blackwell Publishing, 350 Main St., Malden, MA02148, USA, and PO Box 1354, 9600Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK. For helpful comments and suggestions, we thank Leonie Huddy, Stanley Feldman, Gina Sapiro,William Jacoby, and the anonymous reviewers. In addition, we thank American University for extend-ing generous support for this study through a 2001 Faculty Senate research grant.  ishment (AI 2001). Increasingly, nations around the world have decided that thelegitimate scope of state violence should not extend to the taking of a prisoner’slife.Against this backdrop, the United States remains an outlier. In 2000, the U.S.was one of only four countries that accounted for 88% of known executionsworldwide (the others were China, Saudi Arabia, and Iran; see AI 2001). In the1990s, the U.S. was also one of only seven countries known to execute prisonersfor crimes committed under the age of 18 (the others were Iran, Nigeria, Pak-istan, Yemen, Congo, and Saudi Arabia; see AI 2001). Thirty-eight Americanstates and both federal jurisdictions (civilian and military) currently authorize thedeath penalty for capital crimes. Of this total of 40 jurisdictions, 24 permit exe-cutions for crimes committed before the age of 18 (Streib 2001).Public support for the death penalty in the U.S. has varied over time, but inmost eras it has remained strong. In 1936, 61% of Americans favored the death penalty (Harry 2000). This figure declined to a low of 47% in 1966, but then rosethrough the 1970s to reach a stable 70% to 75% level in the 1980s (Ellsworthand Gross 1994). In 1994, public support for capital punishment peaked at around 80% (Harry 2000). In more recent years, amid concern over racial disparities and erroneous convictions, support has once again begun to drop (Goodstein 2001).At present, however, support for the death penalty remains a majority position,with favorable responses standing at around 68% (Gallup 2002). 1 In the politics of capital punishment, patterns of public support are nosmall matter. Although its influence varies across time and issue areas, publicopinion generally has a considerable effect on policy outcomes in the United States (Sharp 1999). In addition to its direct impact on representatives whomust anticipate electoral accountability, majority opinion provides elite support-ers of the death penalty with a crucial form of political leverage—the presump-tion that democratic governments should “give the people what they want.”Perhaps most important, public opinion is a key factor used to determine whether state executions are constitutional under the Eighth Amendment’s prohibitionagainst cruel and unusual punishment. Since Trop v. Dulles (1958), courts havetreated the meaning of “cruel and unusual” as a question to be settled by “evolv-ing standards of decency.” In attempting to divine these standards, the U.S.Supreme Court has relied heavily on levels of public support (McGarrell and Sandys 1996).From the perspective of democratic values, there are good reasons to favor suchresponsiveness to citizens’preferences. Understanding the popular will, however,398  Joe Soss, Laura Langbein, and Alan R. Metelko 1 The 68% figure is based on abstract support (favor or oppose) questions and, hence, should beviewed as a high-end estimate of public support. As in other areas of public opinion, question wordinghas a large effect on death penalty support (McGarrell and Sandys 1996). In 1993, for example, anational poll found that abstract support for capital punishment stood at 77%. When respondents wereasked to consider alternatives, their support for the death penalty declined as follows: 56% if “no parole for 25 years” is available; 49% if “no parole ever” is available; 44% if “no parole for 25 years plus restitution” is available; and 41% if “no parole ever plus restitution” is available (Dieter 1993).  requires more than just consulting a single item on a national poll. To ascertainthe meaning of the public’s preference, one must dig into the stuff of which this preference is made. “Giving the people what they want” has a noble ring, but itmay have troubling consequences when majority desires reflect hostility toward minority opinions or groups. In this sense, it is not enough to ask  whether Amer-icans support the death penalty. Interpretation of public sentiment must beinformed by an analysis of which Americans support the death penalty and whythey support it.This article takes steps toward the development of such an analysis. Specifi-cally, we present a quantitative case study of white death penalty support in theU.S., as it stood in 1992. Our focus on white opinion reflects several considera-tions. First, despite significant shifts in the demographic and political landscape,white people remain the most numerous and politically powerful racial group inAmerica (Klinkner and Smith 1999). Second, white people make up the core of support for capital punishment in the U.S.; they favor it to a degree that far out-strips support among racial minorities. 2 Third, a number of observers have sug-gested that white support for executions is driven by distinctive forces that getobscured in analyses that average effects across social groups (Barkan and Cohn1994; Cohn, Barkan, and Haltman 1991). In this regard, we are particularlyinterested in how, if at all, racial attitudes might fuel white desire for capital punishment.Our reasons for focusing on opinion in 1992 are both substantive and analytic. Substantively, an investigation of white death penalty support in theearly 1990s has historical importance in its own right. Here, we find whitesupport at its “high tide” (Harry 2000). In the election year of 1992, bothmajor-party presidential candidates favored the death penalty, and the Democra-tic candidate (then-Governor Bill Clinton) interrupted his campaign to presideover the highly publicized execution of Ricky Ray Rector, a brain-damaged  black man. Thus, survey data from 1992 allow us to investigate what drovewhite sentiment on the death penalty at a moment when the issue was highlysalient and white support ran thick. Beyond this historical rationale, our focus on1992 also offers analytic advantages. The American National Election Study(ANES) that year included a number of key measures that do not appear in later years—for example, measures of authoritarian and individualist values as well as beliefs about violence as a racial group trait. In addition, the proximity of the1992 ANES to the 1990 U.S. Census makes it possible to examine how socialcontext may augment or mediate individual-level sources of death penaltysupport.Why Do White Americans Support the Death Penalty?399 2 Consider levels of opposition measured by abstract support questions in the last three presiden-tial-year American National Election Studies. In 1992, only 17% of white respondents opposed thedeath penalty; opposition ran at 43% among black respondents. In 1996, white opposition stood at18%, while black opposition was measured at 47%. In 2000, the ANES sample showed white oppo-sition rising slightly to 24%, while black opposition stood firm at 45%.  In what follows, we present a general model of white support for the death penalty. 3 Previous research on this topic has focused on aggregate levels of support, variation across demographic groups, and relationships with a smallnumber of attitudes. Our goal is to provide a more fully specified multivariatemodel of white sentiment. Our analysis offers the first effort we know of to testseveral attitudinal and contextual hypotheses regarding death penalty opinion. Inso doing, we hope to illuminate the broad range of forces that drive popular support. Equally important, by controlling for these diverse sources of opinion,we offer a relatively stringent test of the claim that racial prejudice and racialcontext contribute to white support for capital punishment. Theory and Hypotheses Like any hotly debated policy question, capital punishment is likely to elicit public responses based on a range of values, beliefs, and attitudes. Drawing ontheory and previous research, our analysis treats white support for the death penalty as a product of four types of factors: racial attitudes, social group dif-ferences, core values and political attitudes, and features of social context. Racial Attitudes  There are a number of good reasons to suspect that anti-black attitudesmay bolster white support for the death penalty. Over the past several decades,crime in the U.S. has become an increasingly racialized issue. The symbolic link  between race and crime partly reflects the high rate of violence in poor  black neighborhoods, but it also stems from the race-coded rhetoric publicofficials use to talk about crime and from media coverage that exaggerates black violence (Entman and Rojecki 2000, 78–93; Mendelberg 2001; Peffley,Shields, and Williams 1996). Media stories routinely convey threatening imagesof black crime suspects and disproportionately portray black prisoners as “irra-tional, incorrigible, predatory, and dangerous” (Sloop 1996, 116). Not surpris-ingly, white Americans tend to associate criminality with people of color and  believe that most criminals come from racial minorities (Roberts and Stalans1997).In this context, it seems likely that when white Americans think about ques-tions of crime and punishment, they frame the issues partly in racial terms.Indeed, some observers have argued that white preferences for harsh sentencingshould be viewed as a response to racially tinged perceptions of threat (Cohn,400  Joe Soss, Laura Langbein, and Alan R. Metelko 3 The target of our analysis, we want to underscore, is white opinion. We do not intend for the the-ories or the multivariate model presented in this article to explain death penalty support among peopleof color. Consistent with our expectations, the model presented in this article fails even to achievestatistical significance when applied to the 1992 ANES sample of African Americans (n = 142; LR   c  219df  = 13.9, p = .79). Full results for this analysis are available from the authors on request.
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